12TH BRICS SUMMIT HOSTED BY RUSSIA
Prime Minister Modi attended the 12th edition of the BRICS Summit hosted by Russia virtually on November 17, 2020 at the invitation of the President of Russia, Vladimir Putin. The summit was held in the backdrop of the United Nation’s 75th anniversary and amid the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. According to the External Affairs Ministry, India will be taking over the BRICS Chairmanship, which will also be the third BRICS presidency for the country, after 2012 and 2016 and it will host the 13th BRICS Summit in 2021. The leaders who participated in the summit also discussed the cooperation prospects as well as the International agenda. The summit held online touched upon issues like terrorism, Covid-19 pandemic and the need for reforms in global bodies. The theme of the 12th BRICS Summit is ‘Global Stability, Shared Security, and Innovative Growth’.
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF BRICS AS ORGANISATION
• BRICS is the acronym coined to associate five major emerging national economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa. The BRICS members are known for their significant influence on regional affairs. Since 2009, the BRICS nations have met annually at formal summits.
• The term "BRIC" is believed to be coined in 2001 by then-chairman of Goldman Sachs Asset Management, Jim O'Neill, in his publication Building Better Global Economic BRICs. But, it was actually coined by Roopa Purushothaman who was a Research Assistant in the original report. The foreign ministers of the initial four BRIC General states (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) met in New York City in September 2006 at the margins of the General Debate of the UN Assembly, beginning a series of high-level meetings.
• The BRIC grouping's first formal summit, held in Yekaterinburg on 16 June 2009, with the respective leaders of Brazil, Russia, India, and China, all attending. The summit's focus was on improving the global economic situation and reforming financial institutions.
• In 2010, South Africa began efforts to join the BRIC grouping, and the process for its formal admission began in August of that year. South Africa officially became a member nation on 24 December 2010, after being formally invited by China to join and subsequently accepted by other BRIC countries. The group was renamed BRICS – with the "S" standing for South Africa – to reflect the group's expanded membership. In April 2011, the President of South Africa, Jacob Zuma, attended the 2011 BRICS summit in Sanya, China, as a full member.
MAJOR CONCERNS OF THE SUMMIT
INDIA'S STAND AT THE SUMMIT
• Terrorism: Need to confront the countries that supported and sponsored terror and ensure those terrorists and those who support and sponsor terrorists should be held guilty and this problem is addressed in a collective manner. India acknowledged the Russian support to the BRICS Counter-Terrorism Strategy and reiterated its support to the strategy. It is well aligned with the Brasilia Declaration which condemned terrorism in all forms and manifestation. Earlier this year India’s annual resolution on the issue of counter-terrorism was adopted by consensus in the First Committee of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) which also strengthened the war against terrorism.
• United Nation Security Council (UNSC) Reforms: India raised the issue of credibility and effectiveness of the institutions that were necessary for global governance, and urged for support from BRICS partners.
• Covid-19 pandemic: India addressed the issue of cooperation among the BRICS countries on the production of vaccines for Covid-19. Referring to the post Covid-19 economic hardships of the world, India highlighted the importance of BRICS in that scenario. BRICS countries will play a significant role in the recovery of the post Covid-19 world as 42% of the world’s population resides in the BRICS countries and the economies are the major engines of the world. India also highlighted the scope of increasing trade among the BRICS countries.
• Aatmanirbhar Bharat: India introduced Aatmanirbhar Bharat (self-reliant India) to the BRICS. India said that the Aatmanirbhar Bharat campaign is based on the subject that a self-reliant and resilient India can become a force multiplier for the post Covid-19 world order. While noting the achievements of Aatmanirbhar Bharat, the Prime Minister informed that an example of self-reliance can be seen during COVID-19 when India was able to deliver essential medicines to more than 150 countries globally because of the capability of the Indian Pharma Industry. He assured that India's vaccine production and delivery capacity will work in the interest of humanity like this.
CHINA'S STAND AT THE SUMMIT
It has offered to cooperate with India and other BRICS nations in the development of vaccines against the coronavirus China said it will open the BRICS partnership on a new industrial revolution innovation centre in the Chinese city of Xiamen. China supported the BRICS counter-terrorism strategy that called upon on all countries to take steps to prevent the use of their territories for terrorist activities against other countries or their own citizens. Also supported the declaration which talked about respect for territorial integrity of Syria, Libya, Iraq and in the context of the United Nations.
BRICS Summit for India & China: The 12th BRICS Summit also attracted special attention as Prime Minister Modi faced the President of China Xi Jinping amid the ongoing border standoff between the two nations. The leaders faced each other for the second time after the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) summit. However, bilateral- talks were held between the two nations on the pressing issues. So far, the leaders from India and China had always attended the BRICS meeting in the last few years.
Russia’s Stand: Russia called for a joint effort by the BRICS countries on the development of the coronavirus vaccines. It also highlighted the importance of establishing a Centre for Development and Research of BRICS vaccines.
BRICS, being one of the pillars of the emerging fairer polycentric world order, plays an important stabilising role in global affairs. In the storming ocean of world politics, BRICS can contribute significantly in maintaining international stability and ensuring global economic growth and becoming a united center of the multipolar world.
Q.1 Which of the following countries had held & hosted the first BRIC summit ever in 2009?
A. Brasilia, Brazil
B. Beijing, China
C. Yekaterinburg, Russia: ANSWER
D. New Delhi, India
Q.2 Which of the following countries is the last joined member nations of the BRICS and part of its summit in 2011?
A. South Africa: ANSWER
Q.3 From the following option, which of the personalities is believed to coined the term BRIC in 2001?
A. Josh Stein
B. Jim O'Neill: ANSWER
C. Lloyd Blankfein
D. Roy Cooper
Q.4 In which of the following years does the India for the first time hosted and organised the summit of the BRICS nations?
D. 2012: ANSWER
Q.5 The 12TH BRICS summit which was hosted by Russia was based on which of the following themes?
A. "BRICS Partnership for Global Stability, Security and Prosperity".
B. "Stronger partnership for a brighter future".
C. "Global Stability, Shared Security, and Innovative Growth": ANSWER
D. "Economic Growth for an Innovative Future".