75 YEARS OF INDIA-RUSSIA DIPLOMATIC RELATIONSHIP
Recently India and Russia celebrated the 75th anniversary of their diplomatic relations. This has come amid the Russia-Ukraine war.
What are the Different Aspects of Indo-Russia Relations?
Historical Background: The India and Russia ties have been a longstanding relation. Since the signing of the “Declaration on the India-Russia Strategic Partnership” in October 2000, India-Russia ties have acquired a qualitatively new character with enhanced levels of cooperation in almost all areas of the bilateral relationship including political, security, defence, trade and economy, science and technology, and culture. During the Cold War, India and the Soviet Union had a strong strategic, military, economic and diplomatic relationship. After the Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia inherited its close relationship with India which resulted in both nations sharing a Special Strategic Relation.
POLITICAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TWO NATIONS:
The Annual Summit meeting between the Prime Minister of India and the President of the Russian Federation is the highest institutionalised dialogue mechanism in the strategic partnership between India and Russia. In 2019, President Putin signed the Executive Order on awarding PM Narendra Modi Russia’s highest state decoration – The order of St Andrew the Apostle. The order was presented to PM for his distinguished contribution to the development of a privileged strategic partnership between Russia and India and friendly ties between the Russian and Indian peoples
Defence and Security Relations: India-Russia military-technical cooperation has evolved from a buyer-seller framework to one involving joint research, development and production of advanced defence technologies and systems. Both countries regularly conduct the Tri-Services exercise ‘INDRA‘.
About the S-400 Triumf Missile System: The S-400 Triumf is a mobile, surface-to-air missile system (SAM) designed by Russia. It is the most dangerous operationally deployed modern long-range SAM (MLR SAM) in the world, considered much ahead of the US-developed Terminal High Altitude Area Defense system (THAAD). The system can engage all types of aerial targets including aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and ballistic and cruise missiles within the range of 400km, at an altitude of up to 30km. The system can track 100 airborne targets and engage six of them simultaneously.
ABOUT THE US’ CAATSA (US LAW)
- It is a US federal law enacted in 2017. The Act empowers the US President to impose at least five of the 12 listed sanctions on persons engaged in a “significant transaction” with Russian defence & intelligence sectors. Its “ultimate goal”, “is to prevent revenue from flowing to the Russian Government. Besides Russia, CAATSA is aimed at enforcing sanctions against Iran and North Korea.
- Types of Sanctions: The CAATSA contains 12 types of sanctions. There are only two sanctions that may impact either India-Russia relations or India-US relations.
- Prohibition of banking transactions: The first of these, which is likely to have an impact on India-Russia relations, is the “Prohibition of Banking transactions'. This would mean difficulties for India in making payments in US Dollars to Russia for the purchase of the S-400 systems.
- Export Sanction: The second sanction will have greater consequences for India-US relations. This is the “export sanction” which has the potential to completely derail the India-US Strategic and Defence partnership, as it will deny the license for, and export of, any items controlled by the US.
- About Kamov-226T helicopter: The Ka-226T is a design of Russia's famed Kamov design bureau.
- Assembling: A joint venture India Russia Helicopters Limited (IRHL) has been set up between Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) and Russian Helicopters (RH) which will assemble the helicopters in India.
- INS Vikramaditya: It is the Indian Navy’s largest aircraft carrier and warship converted from the Russian Navy’s decommissioned Admiral Gorshkov/Baku. INS Vikramaditya is a modified Kiev-class aircraft carrier that was commissioned into service in November 2013.
OTHER IMPORTANT AREAS OF COOPERATION
- Nuclear Relations: Russia is an important partner for India in the area of peaceful use of nuclear energy. It recognizes India as a country with advanced nuclear technology with an impeccable non-proliferation record. Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant (KKNPP) is being built in India. Both India and Russia are implementing the Rooppur Nuclear Power Project in Bangladesh.
- Space Exploration: Both sides cooperate in the peaceful uses of outer space, including satellite launches, GLONASS navigation system, remote sensing and other societal applications of outer space. An MoU ISRO and ROSCOSMOS on Joint Activities in the field of Human Spaceflight Programme was signed during the 19th Bilateral Summit.
RELATED FIRST INDO-RUSSIA 2+2 DIALOGUE:
- It is the first 2+2 meeting between the foreign and defense ministers of the two countries. India has held a 2+2 format of meetings with member nations of the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (Quad) — the US, Japan and Australia.
- Agreement for Kalashnikov Rifles: The two sides signed two contracts for the manufacture of nearly 600,000 AK-203 rifles under a joint venture in Amethi, Uttar Pradesh.
- Agreement for Military Cooperation: The two countries also signed an agreement for military technology cooperation for the next decade, from 2021 to 2031. India underlined its goal of becoming Russia’s defense development and production partner from just a buyer. The two sides are now looking at expanding the format of exercises to make them more complex as well as Ideas for expanding India-Russia cooperation In Central Asia.
- Go Ahead With S-400 Air Defense System Deal: India asserted that it follows an “independent foreign policy”, hinting at the US’ Countering America’s Adversaries through Sanctions Act (CAATSA). This is referred to in the context of supply of S-400 air defence missile systems which began this month and will continue to happen.
Q.1 In which of the following multilateral forums, both India & Russia are the common member or the dialogue partners?
- Shanghai Cooperation Organization
- BRICS Organization
- All of the above: ANSWER
Q.2 The International North-South Transport Corridor (INSTC) is a multi-modal transportation established in 2000 in St. Petersburg by which of the following countries for the purpose of promoting transportation cooperation?
- India, Russia & Kazakhstan
- Iran, India & Russia: ANSWER
- Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia
- Ukraine, India, Russia
Q.3 Which of the following Ministers of the Russian Government was recently on a visit to India?
- Sergey Shoygu
- Vladimir Yakushev
- Sergey Lavrov: ANSWER
- None of the above
Q.4 Consider the following statements & state which of the following is/are correct in the reference to the
- Human spaceflight module of Gaganyaan will be launched after the second unmanned mission planned in 2022-23.
- Under the Gaganyaan Mission there will be two unmanned flights and no human spaceflight: ANSWER
- GSLV Mk III, the launch vehicle will be used to launch Gaganyaan as it has the necessary payload capability.
- None of the above
Q.5 Which of the following is the Russian Hypersonic Cruise Missile that has been test-fired from a warship in the north of the country?
- Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM)
- Harpoon Hypersonic Missile
- Tsirkon Hypersonic Cruise Missile: ANSWER
- None of the above