CORRUPTION PERCEPTION INDEX (CPI) 2020
India’s rank has slipped six places to 86th among 180 countries in Corruption Perception Index (CPI) released by Transparency International. India was ranked 80th out of 180 countries in 2019. The index ranks 180 countries and territories by the perceived level of public sector corruption according to experts and business people. It uses a scale of zero (highly corrupt) to 100 (very clean). CPI 2020 paints a grim picture of the state of corruption worldwide. While most countries have made little to no progress in tackling corruption in nearly a decade, more than two-thirds of countries score below 50, with an average score of just 43. Moreover, corruption not only undermines the global health response to Cover-19 but contributes to a continuing crisis of democracy.
BACKGROUND OF THE INDEX
The Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) is an index published annually by Berlin-based Transparency International since 1995 which ranks countries "by their perceived levels of public sector corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys. The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit". The 2020 CPI, published in January of 2021, currently ranks 180 countries "on a scale from 100 (very clean) to 0 (highly corrupt)" based on the situation between May 2019 and May 2020. In the list, Denmark, Finland, New Zealand, Sweden, Singapore and Switzerland are perceived as the top 6 least corrupt nations in the world, ranking consistently high among international financial transparency, while the most perceived corrupt country in the world is Somalia, scoring 8–10 out of 100 since 2012. South Sudan is also perceived as one of the most corrupt countries in the world due to constant social and economic crises, ranking an average score of 13 out of 100 in 2018.
PERFORMANCE IN THE INDEX
- Top Performers: The top countries on the Corruption Perception Index (CPI) are Denmark and New Zealand, with scores of 88, followed by Finland, Singapore, Sweden and Switzerland, with scores of 85 each.
- Poor Performers: South Sudan and Somalia are the bottom Countries with scores of 12 each, followed by Syria (14), Yemen (15) and Venezuela (15).
- Regional Specific: The highest scoring region is Western Europe and the European Union with an average score of 66. The lowest scoring regions are Sub-Saharan Africa (32) and Eastern Europe and Central Asia (36).
- India Specific: In 2020, India's score is 40 (41 in 2019). India experienced slow progress in anti-corruption efforts, with several government commitments to reform not yet materialising effectively.
CORRUPTION, HEALTH & COVID-19
Corruption shifts public spending away from essential public services. Countries with higher levels of corruption,regardless of economic development, tend to spend less on health. Higher levels of corruption are associated with lower universal health care coverage and higher rates of infant and maternal mortality and deaths from cancer, diabetes, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Corruption is one of the key barriers to achieving the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and the covid-19 pandemic is making those goals even more difficult to attain. Covid-19 is not just a health and economic crisis, but a corruption crisis as well, with countless lives lost due to the insidious effects of corruption undermining a fair and equitable global response. The Covid-19 response exposed vulnerabilities of weak oversight and inadequate transparency. Countries with higher levels of corruption tend to be the worst perpetrators of democratic and rule-of-law breaches while managing the COVID-19 crisis. Governments exploiting the pandemic to suspend parliaments, renounce public accountability mechanisms, and incite violence against dissidents.
Strengthen oversight institutions to ensure resources reach those most in need. Anti-corruption authorities and oversight institutions must have sufficient funds, resources and independence to perform their duties. Ensure open and transparent contracting to combat wrong doing, identify conflicts of interest and ensure fair pricing. Defend Democracy, Promote Civic Space by enabling civil society groups and the media to hold governments accountable. Publish relevant data and guarantee access to information to ensure the public receives easy, accessible, timely and meaningful information.
ABOUT TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL
Transparency International is a German non-governmental organization founded in 1993. Based in Berlin, its nonprofit purpose is to take action to combat global corruption with civil societal anti-corruption measures and to prevent criminal activities arising from corruption. Its most notable publications include the Global Corruption Barometer and the Corruption Perceptions Index. Transparency International has the legal status of a German registered voluntary association (Eingetragener Verein) and serves as an umbrella organization. Its members have grown from a few individuals to more than 100 national chapters which engage in fighting corruption in their home countries. TI is a member of G20 Think Tanks, UNESCO Consultative Status, United Nations Global Compact, Sustainable Development Solutions Network and shares the goals of peace, justice, strong institutions and partnerships of the United Nations Sustainable Development Group (UNSDG). TI confirmed the dis-accreditation of the national chapter of the United States of America in 2017. According to the 2016 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report, Transparency International was number 9 of 100 in the Top Think Tanks Worldwide (non-U.S.) category and number 27 of 150 in the Top Think Tanks Worldwide (U.S. and non-U.S.) category.
Q.1 Recently, the Corruption Perception Index 2020 which ranks countries "by their perceived levels of public sector corruption is released by which of the following organisations?
- Financial Action Task Force
- Economist Intelligence Unit
- Transparency International: ANSWER
- None of the above
Q.2 Consider the following statements and state which of the following is/are correct in the context of the above passage?
- India’s rank has slipped six places to 84th among 180 countries in Corruption Perception Index (CPI).
- The 2020 CPI, published in January of 2021, currently ranks 180 countries on a scale from 100 (very clean) to 0 (highly corrupt): ANSWER
- Corruption is one of the key barriers to achieving the United Nations’ 15 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and the covid-19 pandemic.
- None of the above
Q.3 Which of the following countries is not amongst the top five countries of the Corruption Perception Index 2020?
- Iceland: ANSWER
- New Zealand
Q.4 Which of the following statements is/are correct in the context of the performance of the countries in the Index?
- The top countries on the Corruption Perception Index (CPI) are Denmark and New Zealand.
- More than two-thirds of countries score below 50, with an average score of just 43.
- Mozambique and Syria are the bottom Countries in the Corruption Perception Index.
- I & II follows: ANSWER
- II & III follows
- I & III follows
- None is correct
Q.5 Which of the following organisations is not correctly matched with its headquarters?
- Financial Action Task Force --- Paris, France
- Economist Intelligence Unit --- London, United Kingdom
- Transparency International --- Berne, Switzerland: ANSWER
- All of the above is matched correctly