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Current Affairs AUGUST 2020 Set 03

Diksha Sharma 15 MINUTES


1. SC dismisses petition seeking postponement of JEE, NEET Exams

• The Supreme Court dismissed a petition seeking the postponement of the National Eligibility Cum Entrance Test (NEET) and Joint Entrance Exam (JEE) scheduled to be held amid the ongoing pandemic.
• The Court went on to dismiss the plea observing that the career of students cannot be put under jeopardy for long.
• The engineering entrance will be held as per schedule from September 1 to September 6 while the medical entrance is slated for September 13th.
• A bench of Justices Arun Mishra, B.R. Gavai and Krishna Murari were hearing a petition seeking postponement of the NEET and JEE filed by 11 aspirants across various States.

2. India dispatches over 30 tonnes of technical equipment to Mauritius to deal with oil spill

• The Government of India has dispatched over 30 tonnes of technical equipment and material to Mauritius to supplement the country's ongoing oil spill containment and salvage operations.
• The Ministry of External Affairs said, “the decision has been taken, in response to a request of the Government of Mauritius for assistance in dealing with the environmental crisis due to oil spill on its south-east coast.”
• A 10-member Technical Response Team, consisting of Indian Coast Guard personnel specially trained to deal with oil spill containment measures, has also been deployed to Mauritius.
• The Ministry said, India's assistance is in line with it's policy to extend humanitarian assistance and disaster relief to its neighbours in the Indian Ocean region, guided by the Prime Minister's vision of SAGAR (Security and Growth for All in the Region).

3. Gujarat: Quality control lab for Sea food export set up at Porbandar

• The Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA) has opened a quality control laboratory at Porbandar to facilitate tests for seafood processors and exporters to confirm product safety as per international regulatory requirements.
• The laboratory is equipped with advanced testing instruments to analyse antibiotic residues, heavy-metals, such as cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in seafood samples and histamine in fish like tuna and mackerel.
• The laboratory has begun efforts to secure accreditation by the National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories (NABL) and the Export Inspection Council (EIC) and the laboratory was inaugurated by MPEDA Chairman K S Srinivas through video conferencing.
• Gujarat has relatively low instances of antibiotic residue in seafood exports, yet a number of cephalopod consignments are rejected overseas due to the presence of heavy metals, mainly cadmium.
• This prompted MPEDA, under the Union Ministry of Commerce and Industry, to set up a QC lab in Porbandar to test seafood samples.
• According to the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI), Gujarat comes second only to Tamil Nadu in marine fish landings, contributing 7.49 lakh tonnes in 2019, said the release.
• Gujarat also produced 73,842 tonnes of shrimps farmed on 9,709 hectares land, and 1,890 MT of scampi in 2019, it said.
• Gujarat exported 27,9750 MT of seafood worth Rs 5,019.49 crore (USD 716.25 million) during FY 2019-20, with major export items being frozen fin fish, frozen cephalopods, dried items and frozen shrimp in terms of quantity, and fish in terms of value. Gujarat's major markets for seafood exports are China, European Union, South-East Asia, Japan and the US.
• The state is also a major exporter of surimi primarily to Japan.

4. Supreme Court refuses to direct transfer of money collected under PM CARES Fund to NDRF

• The Supreme Court has refused to entertain a plea which wanted it to direct the Centre to transfer all funds collected so far by the PM CARES fund to the National Disaster Relief Fund.
• A three-judge bench led by Justice Ashok Bhushan said financial planning was the government's prerogative and "no one could question it".
• PM CARES was a public charitable trust and there was no occasion for issuing any direction to transfer the said funds to NDRF.
• The Centre, however, could transfer it, if it so wanted, and use NDRF funds for Covid-19, the court said. The fund was set up to deal with biological or public health emergencies during a pandemic and was "different" from NDRF, the court said.
• "It is clear that the PM CARES Fund has been constituted as a public charitable trust. After outbreak of Covid-19, need of having a dedicated national fund with objective of dealing with any kind of emergency or distress situation, like posed by the Covid-19 pandemic, and to provide relief to the affected, a fund was created by constituting a trust with the prime minister as an ex-officio chairman of PM CARES Fund," the bench said. The fund "consists entirely of voluntary contributions from individuals/organisations and does not get any budgetary support. No government money is credited" to the fund, it said.
• Critics of the fund have said that it lacked transparency as it will not be audited by the Comptroller and Auditor General of India although it was a public fund. The bench, which also included R Subhash Reddy and MR Shah, also rejected the plea of the Centre for Public Interest Litigation of activist lawyer Prashant Bhushan that the fund could not have been created in view of existence of NDRF for any other reasons.
• The bench rejected a third plea to direct the government to frame a new national policy to tackle the threat from Covid-19. Arguing for CPIL, senior advocate Dushyant Dave said that the existing plan was neither comprehensive nor did it cover management of a pandemic. The bench noted that the Centre had taken several measures and there was no occasion to issue any direction to it to prepare a fresh national plan.
• "We hold that the Union of India is not obliged to prepare, notify and implement a fresh National Disaster Management Plan for Covid-19." Or minimum standards of relief under Section 12 of the 50 Act, 2005.

5. Govt launches e-portal ‘Swasthya’ on tribal health & nutrition

• Shri Arjun Munda inaugurated the e-portal on tribal health and nutrition named ‘Swasthya’, a first of its kind e-portal, providing all health and nutrition related information of the tribal population of India in a single platform.
• Swasthya will also curate innovative practices, research briefs, case studies, and best practices collected from different parts of India to facilitate the exchange of evidence, expertise and experiences.
• The Ministry of Tribal Affairs has recognized Piramal Swasthya as the Centre of Excellence for Knowledge Management (CoE for KM) for Health and Nutrition.
• The CoE will constantly engage with the Ministry and provide inputs to drive evidence-based policy and decision-making pertaining to health and nutrition of the tribal population of India. The portal http://swasthya.tribal.gov.in is hosted on NIC cloud.
• The launch of the portal is a first step towards the much bigger goal of serving the tribal population of our nation. With support from all the stakeholders, I hope and expect to grow stronger and serve better towards fulfilment of visions of our Prime Minister ‘Healthy India.”

6. HRD ministry officially renamed as Ministry of Education

• With the accent of President Ram Nath Kovind, the change in name of the ministry of human resource development (MHRD) has been given signal.
• The HRD ministry is now renamed as ministry of education.
• The change in the name of the HRD ministry was among the key recommendations of the draft new National Education Policy (NEP), which was also cleared by the Union Cabinet last month.
• The ministry of education was renamed as the HRD ministry in 1985 during the tenure of then prime minister Rajiv Gandhi.
• The National Education Policy was introduced the next year and it was later amended in 1992.
• A panel headed by former ISRO chairman K Kasturirangan, tasked with working on the new NEP, had first proposed that the name of the ministry should be changed again.
• Back in the year 2018, the idea was also mooted by Ram Bahadur Rai, chairman of the Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts and also chairman of the joint organising committee of the Conference on Academic Leadership on Education for Resurgence.

7. Cabinet approves NRA, single entrance exam for government jobs

• The Union Cabinet approved setting up of a National Recruitment Agency (NRA) to carry out a national entrance exam for non-gazetted vacancies in both central government departments, and public sector banks.
• The agency will conduct a single entrance exam for tens of thousands of positions that the government advertises every year.
• The current recruitment model comprises several exams by different recruitment agencies including some by Union Public Service Commission (UPSC). The UPSC, however, will continue to deal with top administrative exams, including the coveted civil services exams.
• NRA will be a multi-agency body to encompass the first level test currently conducted by agencies like Staff Selection Commission (SSC), the Railway Recruitment Boards (RRBs) and the Institute of Banking Service Personnel (IBPS).
• Further, it would be open for other agencies in the public as well as private domain to adopt it if they so choose. Thus, in the long run, the CET score could be shared with other recruiting agencies in the Central Government, State Governments/Union Territories, Public Sector Undertaking and Private Sector.
• This would help such organizations in saving costs and time spent on recruitment.
• The establishment of the NRA will streamline the recruitment process for government jobs, a huge draw among the youth for the security they offer.
• The move will also help put in place a single national exam for all government jobs at a time, when employment or the rather the lack of it is a huge debate.
• The plan to establish a NRA was first mentioned in the 2020 Union Budget.
• CET will work as a screening test, and based on the CET score level, final selection for recruitment shall be made through separate specialised tier one and tier two exams, which shall be conducted by the respective recruitment agencies.

8. Govt allows foreign journalists with valid visas to visit India

• The government has allowed foreign journalists with valid visas to come to India along with family members.
• The decision has been taken after considering the need for further relaxation of visa and travel restrictions for more categories of foreign nationals who want to travel to India.
• Accordingly, in addition to the categories of foreign nationals who were already permitted to enter India, it has been decided to permit foreign nationals holding Journalist (J-1) visas and their dependents holding J-1X visas to enter India, the notification said.
• If they have J-1 or J-1X visas, which have been suspended, such visas shall stand restored with immediate effect to facilitate their entry into India.
• However, the home ministry said if the validity of such visas has expired, they may obtain fresh J-1 or J-1X visas, as the case may be, from the Indian missions or posts concerned.
• It has also been decided that the existing restrictions on incoming passenger traffic into India through the immigration check posts will not apply in respect of these categories of foreign nationals.
• However, in respect of quarantine and all other health and Covid-19 related matters, guidelines of the Ministry of Health shall be adhered to.
• The government has already allowed Overseas Citizen of India (OCI) card holders from the US, UK, German and France, with whom India has signed 'air bubble' arrangements, to visit India.
• Other foreigners from these countries have also been allowed to avail Indian visa facility for business, medical and employment purposes.
• The government has restricted travel of foreigners to India since March 25 when the coronavirus induced country-wide lockdown came into effect.

9. Vijaynagar, one of the remotest corners in Arunachal Pradesh, gets mobile connectivity BSNL

• Vijaynagar in Arunachal Pradesh, one of the remotest and easternmost part of the country, has been connected with mobile connectivity this month. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited has installed a network tower which has become functional now.
• The 2G mobile service that Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited, BSNL launched in Vijaynagar area on the first of August this month will be a boon for the people of this isolated place. Situated in the easternmost corner of Arunachal Pradesh bordering Myanmar, Vijaynagar is not connected with any motorable road.
• The nearest place with a road head is Miao, which is located 157 Km away from the circle. The State Govt and the Indian Air Force have extended necessary help and other logistic support to the BSNL for transportation of the mobile & satellite equipment.

10. Construction of Shri Ram Janmbhoomi Mandir in Ayodhya begins

• The construction of Shri Ram Janmbhoomi Mandir has begun.
• Engineers from CBRI Roorkee, IIT Madras along with L and T are now testing the soil at the mandir site. The construction work is expected to finish in 36 to 40 months. The Mandir will be built by adhering to India's ancient and traditional construction techniques. It will also be built to sustain earthquakes, storms and other natural calamities. Iron will not be used in the construction of the Mandir.
• For Mandir construction, copper plates will be used to fuse stone blocks with each other. Ten thousand such plates will be required in total structure. The trust has called upon Shri Rambhakts to donate such copper plates to the trust. Donors can engrave family names, place of origin or their community temples' names on these plates. The trust said, the copper plates will not only symbolize the unity of this country but also be a testament to the entire country's contribution towards Mandir construction.
• Prime Minister Narendra Modi had performed Bhoomi Poojan and laid the foundation stone of Grand Ram Temple in Ayodhya on 5th August 2020.

11. 29.1% of Delhi's population has antibodies against COVID-19: Sero survey
• Over 29 per cent in Delhi have developed antibodies against Covid-19, the second sero-prevalence survey conducted in Delhi in the first week of August has shown.
• The results of the second sero-prevalence survey, carried out in Delhi from August 1 to August 7, were announced and the sero survey was conducted in Delhi to better assess the city's Covid-19 situation.
• The latest sero survey has shown that antibodies against the novel coronavirus are present among 29.1 per cent residents of Delhi. These include 32.2 per cent women and 28.3 percent men.
• The second serological survey which was conducted between 1-7 August shows that 29.1% of people have developed antibodies against #COVID19. A total of 15,000 samples were collected during the survey:
• The first sero survey, which was done from June 27-July 10 in Delhi, had shown that about 24 per cent of people sampled had shown presence of antibodies, meaning they were affected by Covid-19.
• The fresh survey was undertaken to find out the situation in Delhi since the previous sampling so that better decisions can be made to tackle the coronavirus outbreak, Health Minister Satyendar Jain has earlier said.
• In the second round of the sero survey, over 15,000 samples were collected, spanning different areas and age groups. Representative samples were taken from all 11 districts of the national capital.
• The new sero-prevalence survey excluded those who were part of the previous exercise. Delhi has a total population of around 2 crore.
• Sero-prevalence survey involves testing blood serum of individuals to check for prevalence of antibodies against the viral infection.

12. Madhya Pradesh emerges as leading state in implementation of Pradhan Mantri Street Vendors Atma-Nirbhar Scheme

• Madhya Pradesh has emerged as the leading state in the implementation of Pradhan Mantri Street Vendors Atma-Nirbhar Scheme-PM Swa-Nidhi.
• PM Swa-Nidhi is a Central Sector Scheme to facilitate street vendors to access affordable working capital loan for resuming their livelihoods activities.
• Interest free loan of Rs 10 thousand has been sanctioned so far to 58 thousand 476 street vendors in Madhya Pradesh.
• This is more than 47 percent of the total sanctioned cases of the country. Minister for Urban Development and Housing Bhupendra Singh has informed that in the end of August, loan will be sanctioned to over one lakh street vendors.
• Meanwhile, 8 lakh 78 thousand street vendors have been registered in 378 civic bodies in Madhya Pradesh. Out of this, more than 4 lakh 37 thousand applications have been verified. Identity cards to 3 lakh 77 thousand street vendors have already been distributed. More than One lakh 70 thousand cases have already been sent to various banks for sanctioning of loans.

13. Poultry Research Institute to be set up in Namakkal, says TN CM

• Tamil Nadu Chief Minister Edapadi K Palanisami has announced that a Poultry Research Institute will be set up in Namakkal.
• The institute is being planned on the lines of the High Security Animal Research Institute Bhopal and Poultry Management Institute Pune.
• This assumes importance against the fact that Namakkal is one of the most important poultry breeding centres in South India.
• The Chief Minister also said that an Arecanut Research Station will be set up in Paramathi Velur in the district.
• Edapadi Palanisamy also revealed that a major canal system, stretching for about 132 kms through Tamil Nadu, connecting the Cauvery river with Ponniyaru and Manimutharu rivers is under consideration and is being examined by the government.
• Earlier, besides chairing the review meeting, Edapadi Palanisami also inaugurated several projects and construction works under various schemes at a total cost of Rs 250 crores.
• He also examined the progress of the construction of Namakkal Government Medical College Hospital and the Special Covid Care Centre.

14. PM Modi greets people on Prakash Purab Utsav of ‘Guru Granth Sahib’

• Prime Minister Narendra Modi greeted people on the Prakash Purab Utsav of the holy book Guru Granth Sahib.
• The first Prakash Purab Utsav marked the installation of Guru Granth Sahib in Harmandir Sahib, also known as the Golden temple, in 1604.
• Guru Granth Sahib is the central religious scripture of Sikhs. It is regarded by Sikhs as the final, sovereign and eternal living Guru following the lineage of the ten human gurus of the religion.
• The Adi Granth, its first rendition, was compiled by the fifth Guru, Guru Arjan (1563–1606).
• Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Sikh Guru, did not add any of his own hymns; however, he added all 115 hymns of Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Sikh Guru, to the Adi Granth and affirmed the text as his successor. This second rendition became known as Guru Granth Sahib and is sometimes also referred to as Adi Granth.
• The Guru Granth Sahib is written in the Gurmukhi script, in various languages, including Lahnda, Braj Bhasha, Kauravi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, and Persian.

15. Arjun Munda virtually launches 'TRIFOOD' Project in Raigad, Jagdalpur

• Tribal Affairs Minister Arjun Munda virtually launched the tertiary processing centres under the 'TRIFOOD' project at Raigad in Maharashtra and Jagdalpur in Chhattisgarh.
• The TRIFOOD Project aims at enhancing the income of tribals through better utilization and value addition to the Minor Forest Produces (MFPs) collected by the tribal forest gatherers. 'TRIFOOD' project is being implemented by Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India (TRIFED).
• Under the project, two Minor Forest Produce (MFP) processing units will be set up. The unit at Raigad in Maharashtra will be used for value addition to traditional tribal drink mahua, amla, custard apple and jamun and will also produce mahua drink, amla juice, candy, jamun juice and custard apple pulp.
• The multi-commodity processing centre at Jagdalpur in Chhattisgarh, will be used for the processing of commodities like mahua, amla, honey, cashew, tamarind, ginger, garlic and other fruits and vegetables.
• The project will help promote tribal entrepreneurship. TRIFED is the nodal agency for the upliftment of the tribals, has been putting in place several initiatives to alleviate their distress in these unprecedented times.

16. Health Minister launches interactive video game ‘Corona Fighters’
• To spread awareness about the coronavirus pandemic, Union Health Minister Harsh Vardhan launched a first-of-its-kind, interactive video game and two new promotional videos urging people to adhere to key COVID-19-appropriate behaviours.
• The Union Minister also launched two new videos urging people to adhere to COVID Appropriate Behaviours.
• On the occasion, the health minister expressed his happiness at the launch of this uniquely designed game- ‘The Corona Fighters’. It presents a new and creative way of teaching people the right tools and behaviour to fight the pandemic.
• Corona Fighters video game is available on www.coronafighters.in and has been specifically designed to influence the player's actions in the real world by reminding them to take the right precautions and escape the infection of the virus.
• The Health Minister also mentioned that along with the video game, the two promotional videos are simply designed and are an enjoyable medium to get a serious message across to the wider public.
• While highlighting the importance of appropriate behaviour, the union minister added that till we get a vaccine for COVID-19, the COVID appropriate behaviour will serve as a potent social vaccine and will keep up protected and safe.


1. New Zealand: PM Ardern postpones general election amid new COVID-19 outbreak

• New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern, has postponed the country's general election by a month after the reemergence of coronavirus cases in the country last week.
• The vote was due to take place on 19 of September but will now be held on 17 October instead.
• Prime Minister Arden said, the decision to postpone elections gives all parties time over the next nine weeks to campaign and the Electoral Commission enough time to ensure the polls can go ahead. Ms Ardern added that she has absolutely no intention of allowing any further delays to the vote.
• The opposition National Party of the country had argued for the delay in election saying restrictions on campaigning meant Prime Minister Ardern had an unfair advantage.
• The announcement that new cases had been discovered shocked the country, which had recorded no locally transmitted cases of COVID-19 for more than three months.

2. Israel, UAE inaugurate direct phone links after normalisation of relations

• Israel and UAE have inaugurated direct telephone services between the two countries following their agreement to normalise relations.
• The countries' foreign ministers called each other and exchanged greetings following the historic peace accord.
• Over an hour later, Emirati officials acknowledged that Foreign Minister Sheikh Abdullah bin Zayed Al Nahyan had called his Israeli counterpart Gabi Ashkenazi.
• The Israelis later acknowledged the call as well, saying the block had been lifted from the Emiratis' side.
• Israel foreign minister tweeted that the two sides decided together on the establishment of a direct communication channel ahead of the signing of the normalisation agreement between the two countries and to meet soon.
• Israeli Communications Minister Yoaz Hendel issued a statement congratulating the UAE on removing the blocks. He said, many economic opportunities will open now, and these trust-building steps are an important step toward advancing states' interests.
• The US-brokered deal was announced by President Donald Trump.

3. US expands sanctions on Chinese company Huawei

• The United States Administration has expanded sanctions on the Chinese company Huawei, which are aimed at further restricting the tech giant's access to computer chips and other technologies.
• The US Commerce Department has blacklisted 38 Huawei subsidiaries around the world, saying the company is using international subsidiaries to circumvent sanctions that prevent technology exports from the US.
• Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross said, Huawei and its affiliates have worked through third parties to harness US technology in a manner that undermines US national security and foreign policy interests.
• The tightening of sanctions comes amid escalating tensions between the US and China and Washington's claims that Chinese firms are being used for espionage, despite repeated denials.
• Secretary of State Mike Pompeo said the new sanctions were imposed to protect US national security, our citizens' privacy and the integrity of our 5G infrastructure from Beijing's malign influence.

4. China record floods dampen feet of Giant Buddha statue

• A giant statue of Buddha in China has had its toes dampened by floodwater for the first time since the 1940s.
• The 71m-tall statue, a UNESCO heritage site, was carved out of a rock face near Chengdu in Sichuan province around the eighth century A.D.
• It is normally high above the waterline, but the area has been hit by the worst flooding in 70 years. More than one lakh people had to be moved to safety.
• The statue is a hugely popular attraction and often included in cruises along the nearby Yangtze river and Three Gorges. State media said, 180 tourists had been rescued from the site as waters rose.
• Sichuan province has activated its highest level emergency response after weeks of heavy rain caused record high water levels, with no sign of it ending soon.
• The Ministry of Water Resources has warned this could lead to severe flooding upstream, including the major city of Chongqing.

5. US elections: Democratic Party formally nominates Joe Biden as presidential candidate

• The US Democrats formally nominated Joe Biden as their 2020 US presidential candidate on the second night of the party's national convention.
• Biden, a three-time presidential candidate, contested the election for top post — more than three decades after his first White House bid.
• His running mate, California Sen. Kamala Harris, will become the first woman of color to accept a major party's vice presidential nomination.

6. Mali President Ibrahim Boubacar Kita resigns amid military coup

• Malian President Ibrahim Boubacar Keita has announced his resignation amid a military coup. He announced his resignation on state television hours after mutinous soldiers fired shots into the air outside his home before detaining him.
• The dramatic development comes after more than two months of regular demonstrations calling for him to step down three years before his final term was due to end.
• Keita, who was democratically elected and re-elected, was left with few choices after the mutinous soldiers seized weapons from the armory in the garrison town of Kati and then advanced on the capital of Bamako.
• Soldiers detained Mali's president and prime minister yesterday after surrounding a residence and firing into the air in an apparent coup.

7. Sri Lankan govt grants approval to abolish 19th amendment to constitution

• The Sri Lankan government has granted approval to abolish the 19th amendment to the constitution and replace it with the 20th amendment.
• President Gotabaya Rajapaksa and Prime Minister Mahinda Rajapksa had made the abolition of the 19th amendment as the main election plank during the presidential and parliamentary elections.
• The amendment brought by the previous government had put a two-term limit on the Presidency and curtailed the executive powers of the President and transferred it to parliament and independent commissions.
• The Rajapaksa family had alleged that the amendment was brought specifically to target the family.
• Mahinda Rajapaksa could not contest the last November Presidential elections because of term limit and his younger brother Gotabaya became the candidate.
• The Rajapaksas secured a two-third majority in parliament during general elections held this month, thus paving way for constitutional amendments.


1. MS Dhoni announces retirement from international cricket

• MS Dhoni, the former captain of the Indian cricket team, has announced his retirement from international cricket, bringing down curtains on a near 16-year-long storied career of one of the country’s greatest limited-overs cricketers.
• Dhoni retires as India’s most successful captain in limited-over internationals, having won three ICC trophies - 2007 T20 World Cup, 50-over World Cup in 2011 and the 2013 ICC Champions Trophy - the only captain to do so.
• The announcement means that Dhoni’s last India game would remain the semifinal of the 2019 ICC Cricket World Cup in which India lost to New Zealand by 18 runs.
• It was his 350th ODI, in which he scored 50 off 72 balls before being run-out by a bullet throw from Martin Guptill in the deep. Incidentally, Dhoni was run-out in his first ODI as well.
• Having retired from Test cricket in December of 2014 with 4876 runs from 90 matches, Dhoni carried on playing ODIs and T20Is. With 10,733 runs, Dhoni is fifth in the list of India’s all-time run-scorers in ODI behind Sachin Tendulkar, Virat Kohli, Sourav Ganguly and Rahul Dravid. His overall Indian numbers are staggering: 538 matches, 17,266 runs, 16 centuries, 108 fifties, 359 sixes, 829 dismissals.
• Dhoni, however, would be turning up in the IPL where he will captain the Chennai Super Kings in the tournament’s 13th season in the UAE.

2. Former Indian cricketer and UP Minister Chetan Chauhan passes away
• Former cricketer-turned-politician Chetan Chauhan passed away due to COVID-19 related complications after being put on life support for nearly 36 hours.
• Chauhan, who was a minister in the Uttar Pradesh cabinet, was initially admitted at SGPGI in Lucknow, and later moved to Medanta Hospital in Gurugram.
• Chauhan, who played 40 Tests for India, was 73 and is survived by his wife and son Vinayak, who is scheduled to arrive from Melbourne later in the day.
• Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath expressed his grief at the passing away of a cabinet colleague. Caouhan is the second minister from Uttar Pradesh to have succumbed to the virus, the first being technical education minister Kamla Rani Varun. Varun passed away on August 2 after suffering from the virus for a few days.

3. Satya Pal Malik appointed as Meghalaya Governor

• The present Governor of Goa Satya Pal Malik has been appointed as the Governor for Meghalaya by President Ram Nath Kovind.
• Maharashtra Governor Bhagat Singh Koshyari will discharge the functions of the Governor of Goa in addition to his own duties.
• Malik was the governor of Jammu and Kashmir from August 2018 to October 2019, and it was during his tenure that the decision to abrogate Article 370, which gave special status to Jammu and Kashmir, was taken in August 2019.

4. Renowned classical singer Pandit Jasraj passes away at the age of 90 years

• Indian classical vocalist Pandit Jasraj passed away on Monday following a cardiac arrest at his home in New Jersey. He had turned 90 in January this year.
• Jasraj was in the US when the coronavirus-led lockdown happened and decided to stay back in that country.
• He was a recipient of various prestigious awards and honours including Padma Shri, Padma Bhushan and Padma Vibhushan.
• He represented the last of a generation of classical vocalists, which includes 83-year-old Kishori Amonkar, the doyenne of the Jaipur Atrauli gharana.
• Belonging to Mewati Gharana, Jasraj was introduced to vocal music by his father, and was later trained as a tabla accompanist under the tutelage of elder brother, Pandit Pratap Narayan. Jasraj began training as a vocalist at the age of 14, and his riyaz once used to last for 14 hours a day.
• Pandit Jasraj will be remembered as the pioneer who added elements of the thumri to the khayal, giving it more flexibility and making it more audience-friendly. This would have been considered blasphemous half a century ago, when the khayal was serious business and sung without any ornamentation. Even the bandish would be sung with a certain indifference.
• In September last year, a minor planet, between Mars and Jupiter, was named after him. International Astronomical Union (IAU) named minor planet 2006 VP32 (number -300128) , discovered on November 11, 2006, as ‘Panditjasraj’ which traverses the cosmos between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.

5. Rakesh Asthana appointed DG of Border Security Force
• Former special director of the Central Bureau of Investigation, Rakesh Asthana, has been appointed as the Director-General of the Border Security Force (BSF).
• Rakesh Asthana, who came into the spotlight in 2018 in the 'CBI vs CBI' case, was holding charge as DG, Bureau of Civil Aviation Security (BCAS) with additional charge of DG, NCB.
• Asthana will take over as the DG BSF and he will no longer be holding the charge of DG BCAS.
• Rakesh Asthana, a 1984-batch Gujarat cadre officer, has been involved in investigating some high-profile cases. He also arrested Rashtriya Janata Dal chief Lalu Prasad Yadav in the fodder scam in 1997, while he was holding the post of superintendent of police in the CBI.
• He was removed from the CBI in 2018 after a case of bribery and extortion was lodged against him. He had alleged that this was done at the behest of then CBI director Alok Verma.
• Alok Verma was also asked to leave the agency and was transferred as DG Fire Services, which he never joined.
• Rakesh Asthana, who reportedly is close to the current government, is set to retire on July 31, 2021. Asthana will be in race to become the Director of CBI in January 2021 after the current director retires.
• Meanwhile, VSK Kaumudi, who is presently working as DG, Bureau of Police research and Development (BPR&D), will be Special Secretary (Internal Security) in the Home Ministry.
• He has been appointed Special Secretary (Internal Security), Ministry of Home Affairs up to November 30, 2022 i.e. date of his superannuation, the order said.
• His batchmate from Uttar Pradesh cadre, Md Jawed Akhtar has been appointed the DG, Fire Services, Civil Defence & Home Guard.
• Akhtar will hold the charge of the post for a period up to July 31, 2021, i.e. date of his superannuation.

6. Prez Kovind accepts Ashok Lavasa's resignation as Election Commissioner

• Election Commissioner Ashok Lavasa's resignation has been accepted by the President. He will join the Philippines-based Asian Development Bank (ADB) as Vice President next month.
• Mr. Lavasa had submitted his resignation to President Ram Nath Kovind yesterday and had requested to be relieved by the end of this month.
• Last month, the ADB had announced his appointment to the post of its Vice-President.


1. Railways convert 5,231 non air-conditioned coaches into isolation coaches as COVID Care Centres
• In order to augment the capability against Covid-19, Indian Railways has converted 5,231 non-air-conditioned coaches into isolation coaches as per the guidance document on appropriate management of suspected or confirmed cases.
• These facilities are part of the integrated Covid-19 plan developed by the Ministry of Family and Health Welfare (MoHFW) and NITI Ayog, and are normally to be used when state facilities are overwhelmed.
• It was mutually agreed by NITI Ayog and MoHFW that AC coaches would not be suitable in view of the potential transmission risk of Covid-19 through AC ducting.
• A higher ambient temperature was expected to assist in fighting the virus and cross circulation of air through open windows will benefit patients.
• These isolation coaches, serving as Covid-19 Care Centers, shall offer care only for cases that have been clinically assigned as mild or very mild cases or Covid-19 suspect cases.
• Each such isolation train/CCC must necessarily be mapped to one or more Dedicated Covid-19 Health Centres and at least one Dedicated Covid Hospital for referral purpose where the patients can be shifted to in case their condition starts to deteriorate.
• As per the Covid-19 training procedure prepared by the MoHFW, one emergency resuscitation facility will be set up on the platform adjacent to the platform where the train is parked, by the associated health unit.

2. Govt proposes stricter norms for construction machinery to ensure greater safety on highways
• To ensure greater safety on highways, the government has proposed stricter norms that include features like machine-mounted audible travel alarms, non-metallic fuel tanks and wider operator visibility for construction equipment machinery.
• The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MoRTH) has come out with a draft notification for construction equipment vehicles that addresses issues of safety requirements, the safety of the operator besides ensuring safety while such machines are running on public roads along with other vehicles.
• Currently, certain safety requirements are already mandated for such vehicles in Central Motor Vehicles Rules but the proposed notification aims to introduce AIS (Automotive Industry Standard) 160 to introduce several safety requirements like machine mounted audible travel alarms, visual display requirements, requirements for operator station and maintenance areas, non-metallic fuel tanks and Minimum Access Dimensions.
• Construction equipment vehicles are extensively used for carrying out various infrastructure projects. To provide for the safety of the operator and to ensure safety while such machines are running on public roads along with other vehicles, the government has invited suggestions from stakeholders and people on the proposed safety norms.
• Construction equipment vehicle means a self-propelled machine with rubber tyred, rubber padded or steel drum wheel-mounted compactor, wheeled hydraulic excavator, wheel loader, backhoe loader, skid-steer loader, dumper, motor grader, mobile crane, dozer and pavers among others.

3. Karnataka to build industrial corridor between Mysuru and Bidar

• Karnataka Deputy Chief Minister Dr. C N Ashwathnarayan has said that the state will build an industrial corridor between Mysuru and Bidar to augment the development of industry and commerce.
• This would be in line with the modules of Bengaluru-Chennai and Bengaluru- Mumbai corridors.
• This is being done to augment the development of commerce and industry in the state.
• The projects will help Karnataka achieve its target of 35 lakh crore of GDP in next five years. The State Government of Karnataka has launched several steps recently to boost the development in the state.
• This includes Simplification of labour laws, APMC amendment act and land reforms amendment act.

4. Nitin Gadkari lays foundation for 13 highway projects in Manipur

• Union Minister Nitin Gadkari laid the foundation stones of ₹3,000-crore highway projects in Manipur and said the government will soon take up additional projects worth ₹16,023 crore in the state.
• Laying the foundation stone of the 13 highway projects and inaugurating a road safety project in a virtual ceremony, the road transport, highways and MSME minister promised to also expedite the ongoing ₹2,250-crore highway works in the state and termed it as his "priority".
• Projects worth ₹16,023 crore will be awarded soon for highway works of 874.5 km. Projects worth ₹2,250 crore are already underway in the state which will also be expedited.
• New projects will be taken up. These include a 106.5-km four-lane project between Kohima and Imphal at ₹2,663 crore, a 220-km four-lane project on a stretch of NH-37 from Imphal to Jiraban at ₹5,425 crore, and a 118-km two-lane project on NH-129A at ₹1,765 crore.

5. Indian Railways constructing world's tallest pier bridge in Manipur.

• Indian Railways' North East Frontier Railway zone has constructed the world's tallest pier bridge in the North-Eastern state of Manipur.
• The bridge which is being constructed across river Ijai near Noney is an engineering marvel because the tallest pier height will be 141 meter. It will surpass the existing record of 139 meter of Mala - Rijeka viaduct, Montenegro in Europe.
• The bridge is a part of Jiribam-Tupul-Imphal new BG line project (111 Km). The total length of the bridge will be 703 meter. The piers of the bridge are constructed using hydraulic augers, the tall piers needed specially designed “slip-form technique" to ensure efficient and continual construction.
• The total length of the bridge will be 703 meters. The piers of the bridge are constructed using hydraulic augers. The tall piers needed specially designed 'slip-form technique' to ensure efficient and continual construction.
• The steel girders are pre-fabricated in a workshop, transported in segments and erected at the site by Cantilever launching scheme.
• There are a total of 45 tunnels in the project. The longest is Tunnel No. 12 with a length of 10.280 km. This will be the longest railway tunnel in the North East.

6. Rail Bicycle introduced to quickly travel on rail tracks for inspections

• Indian Railways has introduced an innovative system to ensure passenger security in the country.
• Recently, the national transporter introduced a novel mechanism, Rail Bicycle, to quickly travel on rail tracks for inspections, monitoring, and urgent repairs.
• With the help of Rail Bicycle, any emergency location can be easily reached for urgent repairs.
• Apart from emergency situations, Rail Bicycles are also very helpful for Hot Weather Patrolling as well as daily monitoring of the rail tracks.
• Due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, some of the sections over the Indian Railways network are currently closed for the traffic. In these sections, Rail Bicycles are used for patrolling, ensuring safety and security.
• Rail Bicycle is a light-weight structure of around 20 kilograms and can be lifted by just one person. The cycle can be easily assembled and dismantled by one person. The average speed of the Rail Bicycle is 10 kilometer per hour and the maximum speed is 15 km per hour. The Rail Bicycle can carry two persons.
• Railways has said that these Rail Bicycles can be easily manufactured at very economical rates. The total cost of a Rail Bicycle is only 5 thousand rupees.

7. Indian Railways introduces drone-based surveillance system to protect railway assets

• For better security and surveillance in Indian Railways’ areas like station premises, yards, railway track sections, workshops, etc., the Mumbai Division of Central Railway zone has recently procured two Ninja UAVs.
• For drone flying, surveillance as well as for its maintenance, a team of four Railway Protection Force (RPF) staff, Mumbai has been trained. According to a press release issued by the Railway Ministry, these drones are capable of Real Time Tracking, Video Streaming, as well as they can be operated on Automatic Fail Safe Mode.
• The extensive use of drones has been planned by the RPF for the purpose of Railway security.
• So far, RPF has procured as many as nine drones at a cost of Rs 31.87 lakh at Central Railway, South Eastern Railway, South Western Railway, Modern Coaching Factory, and Raebareli. In the future, it is further proposed to procure 17 more drones at a cost of Rs 97.52 lakh.
• So far, as many as 19 RPF personnel have been trained in drone operation and its maintenance. Of them, four RPF personnel have received licenses for flying drones. Besides, an additional six RPF personnel are also being trained.
• The drone deployment’s purpose is to provide a force multiplier as well as aid to the effectiveness of the security staff deployed.
• The drones can help in inspection of Indian Railways’ assets and safety of yards, car sheds, workshops, etc. Also, to launch surveillance on anti-social and criminal activities such as garbage throwing, hawking, gambling, etc., on railway premises, the drones can be used. Additionally, the drones can be deployed for data collection analysis that may prove to be very useful in those sections that are vulnerable, for safe train operations.
• Moreover, at disaster sites, the drone may be pressed into service for helping in recovery, rescue, restoration as well as coordinating the efforts of various agencies. Also, to assess the encroachments on railway property, the drones are helpful while undertaking mapping of railway assets. The drones can also give vital inputs such as crowd magnitude, probable time of arrival, and dispersal during large scale crowd management efforts, based on which efforts on crowd regulation may be planned and executed. During the COVID-19 lockdown, drones were utilized to enforce lockdown and monitor the migrants’ movement.
• The drone-based surveillance system acts as an “Eye in the sky” and monitors the whole area.

8. RBI releases framework for pan-India entity for retail payments

• Reserve Bank of India has unveiled the framework for setting up of pan-India Umbrella Entity for Retail Payments.
• As per the framework, the companies with a net worth of over 500 crore rupees will be eligible to set up an umbrella entity which among other things will be permitted to set up, manage and operate new payment systems in the retail space comprising ATMs, White Label PoS, Aadhaar-based payments and remittance services.
• The entity will be expected to monitor national as well as international developments so as to avoid shocks and frauds that may adversely affect the system and the economy in general.
• Inviting applications by February 2021, the RBI said that the promoter/promoter group of the umbrella entity shall be owned and controlled by resident Indian citizens.
• RBI said the application for setting up the umbrella entity should contain a detailed business plan covering the payment systems proposed to be set up and/or operated along with other documents to duly establish its experience in the payments ecosystem.

9. Kerala-based Techgentsia's software to replace Zoom, Google Meet at central govt offices.

• Kerala-based startup Techgentsia Software Solutions has won the government's 'Grand Innovation Challenge' for developing a video conferencing solution that is set to replace Zoom and Google Meet in government offices.
• In addition to Techgentsia, the jury also selected products developed by three applicants namely Jaipur-based Sarv Webs Pvt, Hyderabad-based PeopleLink Unified Communications Pvt and Chennai-based Instrive Softlabs Pvt as potential products.
• After winning the Innovation Challenge held by the Union Ministry of Electronics and IT during the lockdown, V-consol software, developed by Techgentsia Software Technologies, won a three-year contract to set up video conferencing facilities in the Central government offices as a prize.
• The company is led by a Keralite Joy Sebastian and is based at Infopark in Pallipuram. Along with the three-year contract, Techgentsia also won Rs 1 crore.
• The set up will be done by using V-consol software through the National Informatics Center (NIC). In addition to the contract and the prize money, an annual maintenance grant of Rs 10 lac will also be provided.
• V-consol software supports eight Indian vernacular languages including Malayalam.
• After deliberations, five applicants were shortlisted for developing a product that would be ready for the market. Of the five, three applicants received Rs 20 lac and the rest were given Rs 15 lac.
• In the end, V-consol software by Techgentsia emerged the winner. The jury decided to offer Rs 25 lac each to three companies - Sarv Wave (Jaipur), Insta VC (Hyderabad), HydraMeet (Chennai) so that they can further develop their products for three months.

10. Ministry of Skill Development, Ministry of Shipping ink MoU for skill development in port & maritime sector

• A Memorandum of Understanding, MoU was signed between the Ministry of Skill Development and Ministry of Shipping for skill development in the port and maritime sector.
• The MoU is aimed at skilling, re-skilling and up-skilling manpower for the growing maritime industry and development of coastal communities.
• Shipping Minister Mansukh Mandaviya said that this partnership will provide vast employment opportunities and better prospects to the youth of coastal areas.
• This MoU will reinforce the commitment of Coastal Community Development under the SagarMala programme of the Ministry of Shipping and nurture the skilled manpower for the development of ports and maritime sector of India and globally.

11. India, Israel sign cultural agreement to further boost people-to-people ties

• India and Israel signed a cultural agreement that outlines a three-year programme of cooperation to further strengthen their strategic bilateral relations today. It aims to promote greater people-to-people exchanges.
• The agreement was signed by Israel's Foreign Minister Gabi Ashkenazi and India's Ambassador to Israel, Sanjeev Singla, at the foreign ministry in Jerusalem.
• The agreement states that it shall contribute to the development of their relations and to raising awareness, particularly among youth, of the history and culture of the people of both countries.
• The programme of cooperation between the two countries for the years 2020-23 is based on the cultural agreement signed between them on May 18, 1993, a little more than a year after they established full-fledged diplomatic relations.
• The major areas of cooperation identified to promote cultural ties include the exchange of culture and art experts, encouraging cooperation in the protection of cultural heritage and archaeology with the help of Israel Antiquities Authority (IIA) and Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) and organising literary fests and book fairs while promoting the translation of famous works in each other's languages.
• It also includes student exchanges through scholarships, encouraging the participation of films and film-makers in each other's international film festivals, devising youth exchange programmes and encouraging sports-related interaction among youth.

12. 40 lakh unemployed workers to get 50% of 3 months wages as ESIC relaxes norms

• The Employees’ State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) relaxed their norms to ensure that people who have lost their jobs due to the pandemic between March 24 and December 31 this year get paid average wages of three months as unemployment benefit.
• This move will benefit more than 40 lakh workers across several sectors.
• Under the Atal Bimit Vyakti Kalyan Yojana ESIC approved the relaxations in eligibility criteria and enhancement to ensure payment of unemployment benefits.
• ESIC has also decided to extend the scheme till June 1 next year.
• The payment of relief has been enhanced to 50 percent of average wages from 25 percent of average wages payable up to a maximum of 90 days of unemployment, ESIC said in a statement. The relief has now become payable 30 days after unemployment, it was earlier payable after 90 days of employment.
• The person seeking the benefit can submit the claim if the person has had insurable income for at least a minimum of two years and contribution should have been made for not less than 78 days in the contribution period immediately preceding to unemployment and in one of the three remaining contribution periods in two years prior to employment, the ESIC statement said.
• The insured person can submit the claim directly to the ESIC branch office instead of the claim requiring the need to be forwarded by a previous employer. The money will be transferred directly to the bank account of the person.


1. Atal Rankings of Institutions on Innovation Achievements (ARIIA) 2020

• Atal Ranking of Institutions on Innovation Achievements (ARIIA) is an initiative of the Ministry of Education, Government of India to systematically rank all the major higher educational institutions and universities in India on indicators related to “Innovation and Entrepreneurship Development” amongst students and faculties.
• Two broad categories in ARIIA are publicly funded institutions and private or self-financed institutions.

• The publicly funded institutions have been further categorized into:
1. Institute of National Importance, Central Universities & Central Funded Technical Institutes.
2. State University & Deemed Universities (Government & Government Aided)
3. Government and Government / Aided College/Institutes

• The private or self-financed institutions have been categorized further into:
1. private or self-financed universities
2. private or self-financed college/institutes

• A 6th sub- category for higher educational institutions for women has been introduced in 2020 to encourage women and bring gender parity in the areas of innovation and entrepreneurship. The list is given as following:

1. Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Madras in the Institute of National Importance, Central Universities & Central Funded Technical Institutes category.
2. Maharashtra’s Institute of Chemical Technology in the government and government-aided universities category.
3. College of Engineering Pune in the government and government aided college/institutions category.
4. Odisha’s Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology (KIIT) in the private or self-financed universities category.
5. SR Engineering College, Telangana in the private colleges category.
6. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Sciences and Higher Education, Coimbatore in the higher educational institutions for women category.

2. India ranks first in number of organic farmers, 9th in terms of area under organic farming

• India has been ranked first in the number of organic farmers and ninth in terms of area under organic farming.
• Sikkim has become the first state in the world to become fully organic. Other states including Uttarakhand and Tripura have also set similar sustainability targets.
• North-east India has traditionally been organic and the consumption of chemicals is far less than the rest of the country. The tribal and island territories are also being encouraged to take forward their organic methods.
• The Government initiated Mission Organic Value Chain Development for North East Region (MOVCD) and Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY) in 2015 to encourage chemical free farming.
• It also aims at assisting farmers to adopt organic farming and improve earnings due to premium prices. Agri-export Policy 2018, has also given a major thrust in the field of Organic farming in the country.
• The major organic exports from India have been flax seeds, sesame, soybean, tea, medicinal plants, rice and pulses. Quick and easy certification process of the Organic produce under Participatory Guarantee System (PGS) and National Program for Organic Production (NPOP) have helped poise India to be a leader in terms of Organic produce in years to come.

3. Swachh Survekshan 2020 results announced

• Results of the Swachh Survekshan 2020 were announced by Minister of Civil Aviation of India Hardeep Singh Puri. The Swachh Survekshan 2020 covered 4,242 cities, 62 cantonment boards and 92 Ganga towns. This survey was carried out in 28 days.
• Indore is India’s cleanest city in Swachh Survekshan 2020, the fifth edition of the annual cleanliness survey of the country.
• The city has bagged the spot for the fourth time in a row. Gujarat’s Surat on second spot and Maharashtra’s Navi Mumbai on third.
• In the category of population of less than 1 lakh, Maharashtra’s Karad bagged the first position, followed by state’s Saswad and Lonavala.
• Best performing states in terms of overall performance were divided in two categories- states with over 100 Urban Local Bodies (ULB) and states with less than 100 ULBs.
• In the first category, Chhattisgarh bagged the award for the second time and Jharkhand won the award in the second category.
• India’s Cleanest Cantonment Board award was bagged by Jalandhar cantonment from Punjab and Best Ganga Town award was given to Varanasi.
• Best city in terms of maximum citizen’s participation award in the category of population of over 1 lakh has been given to Uttar Pradesh’s Shahjahanpur. In the same category for cities with population less than 1 lakh, the award was bagged by Uttarakhand’s Nandaprayag.
• Cleanest city with over 40 lakh population award was won by Ahmedabad and Vijayawada won in the category of city with population between 10 lakh to 40 lakh. Fastest mover big city award was won by Rajasthan’s Jodhpur. Gujarat's Rajkot won the best self sustainable city award. In the category of 3 to 10 lakh population, the cleanest city award went to Karnataka’s Mysuru.
• Uttar Pradesh’s Firozabad won fastest mover city in 3 lakh to 10 lakh population category. In the same population category, Pilai of Chattisgarh won the best self sustainable city award.
• Cleanest small city award in the 1 lakh to 3 lakh population category went to Chattisgarh’s Ambikapur. Burhanpur of Madhya Pradesh won the award for fastest mover small city.
• Cleanest capital city award was won by New Delhi’s New Delhi Municipal Corporation (NDMC). Fastest mover capital city award went to Lucknow. Bhopal bagged the award for best self sustainable capital city.
• A total of 129 top performing cities and states were awarded by Minister of Civil Aviation of India Hardeep Singh Puri in the virtual programme called ‘Swachh Mahotsav’. This programme was organised by the ministry of housing and urban affairs. PM Modi, who was originally supposed to announce the results, could not attend the event.
• Mysuru had won the award for the cleanest city of India in the first edition of the survey, while Indore has retained the top position for three consecutive years (2017,2018, 2019).



1. Dream11 wins IPL 2020 title sponsorship rights

• The suspense around the title sponsor of the Indian Premier League (IPL) for the 2020 edition came to an end with gaming app Dream11 emerging the winner with a bid of Rs 222 crore.
• Dream11's bid was more than the offers made by the two other contenders - Unacademy and Byju's, which had set aside Rs 171 crore and Rs 201 crore, respectively, for the title sponsorship.



1. World Humanitarian Day (WHD)-August 19

• On World Humanitarian Day (WHD) August 19, the world commemorates humanitarian workers killed and injured in the course of their work, and we honour all aid and health workers who continue, despite the odds, to provide life-saving support and protection to people most in need.
• This year, World Humanitarian Day comes as the world continues to fight the COVID-19 pandemic over recent months.
• This day was designated in memory of the 19 August 2003 bomb attack on the Canal Hotel in Baghdad, Iraq, killing 22 people, including the chief humanitarian in Iraq, Sergio Vieira de Mello. In 2009, the United Nations General Assembly formalized the day as World Humanitarian Day.

2. International Day of Remembrance and Tribute to the Victims of Terrorism-21 August

• The General Assembly established 21 August as the International Day of Remembrance of and Tribute to the Victims of Terrorism in order to honor and support the victims and survivors of terrorism and to promote and protect the full enjoyment of their human rights and fundamental freedoms.
• This day was established in 2017.
• An online high-level event entitled “Not Forgotten: Stories of Remembrance of Victims of Terrorism”, was held with the participation of the United Nations Secretary-General, Mr. António Guterres, for victims to speak about remembrance on their own terms, reminding the audience that it is not only about bereavement, but also about acknowledging the experience of survivors.