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SM Current Affairs APRIL 2022 Set 02, Current Affairs Notes By Success Mantra Coaching Institute GTB Nagar Delhi

SM Current Affairs APRIL 2022 Set 02

Diksha Sharma 20 MINUTES

PREFACE

It gives us great pleasure to release the monthly edition of the PRAVAHINI - Monthly e-Compendium & Weekly e-Periodicals of Current Affairs. The magazine’s members have shown considerable cooperation as well as devotion. We at successmantra.in work tirelessly to create this magazine and bring it to you with a great sense of gratitude.

The PRAVAHINI April-2022 eBook covers the current events that happened in the month of April. Current Affairs is a crucial component of any competitive exams including CLAT, AILET, DU-LLB, HM, CAT, IAS, PCS, SSC, Banking, MBA and various other competitive examinations.

Current Affairs play the bigger role in many competitive and government exams. It holds the power of making or breaking your chance of success. Therefore, the candidates should cover the Current Affairs thoroughly and smartly.

The PRAVAHINI April-2022 eBook is divided into different sections keeping in mind the need of various exams. The sections covered namely International, National, Economy, Ecology and Environment, Science & Technology, Legal Affairs, Sports, States News Makers and few others.

We would also be pleased to receive any suggestion that could assist us with the upcoming editions.

Success Mantra (GTB Nagar, Delhi)
Website: www.successmantra.in
Mail Id: [email protected]

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. National Affairs

2. International Affairs

3. Economic Affairs

4. Appointments

5. Awards & Honors

6. Important Dates & Sports

7. Reports & Indexes

8. Science & Technology

9. Miscellaneous


NATIONAL AFFAIRS

PM MODI INAUGURATED PRADHAN MANTRI SANGRAHALAYA

 Prime Minister Narendra Modi inaugurated the Pradhanmantri Sangrahalaya in New Delhi on April 14.

 The Sangrahalaya, located at the iconic Teen Murti complex, was inaugurated as part of Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav — a 75-week celebration launched to mark 75 years of Independence.

 The museum will become a source of inspiration for the youth who will be able to witness the hardships each PM faced and how they overcame them to lay the foundations of a new India.

 The museum will reflect the shared heritage of each government. The Congress alleged that the new museum was an attempt to dilute the legacy of India’s first PM Jawaharlal Nehru, a charge rejected by the Centre.

 Key Features of Pradhanmantri Sangrahalaya:

 The project to build the new museum faced stiff opposition when the government announced its plan in 2018.

 The museum building integrates the Teen Murti Bhawan in New Delhi, designated as Block I, with the newly-constructed Block II. The total area of the two blocks is over 15,600 square metres. There are 43 galleries in Sangrahalaya.

 The logo of the Sangrahalaya, meanwhile, shows hands holding the dharma chakra, symbolising the nation and democracy.

KARNATAKA ANNOUNCED CELEBRATION OF INTEGRATION DAY

 Karnataka Chief Minister Basavaraj Bommai announced that Sri Siddalinga Swami of Tontadarya Mutt’s birth anniversary in Gadag will be celebrated across the state as ‘Integration Day.’

 This was announced after the Chief Minister inaugurated the Aikya Mantapa on 15th April 2022. The Mantapa is a structure built around the location where the seer’s mortal remains were buried on the Tontadarya Mutt grounds in Gadag.

 About Sri Siddalinga Swami

 He was a great philosopher and thinker. He was dedicated to building a harmonious society, and he dedicated his entire life to it. He had also received the Rajyotsava award for communal harmony and the Rashtriya Basava Puraskar.

 The Government of India had also honoured him with the Communal Harmony and National Integration Award. The seer had also led the ‘Save Kappatagudda’ movement as he was immensely concerned about the environment.

 He also had written scores of literary works with social reforms as the main theme. He was well known for his progressive actions, and after taking the seat as the 19th head of Tontadarya Mutt, he discontinued many rigorous practices being followed in the name of tradition.

 80 educational institutions had also been established by him.

WATERWAYS CONCLAVE 2022

 The Waterways Conclave 2022 was organized by the Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI) on 11th and 12th April 2022 in Dibrugarh, Assam.

 The aim of this conclave was to focus on harnessing the potential of the international and domestic waterway ecosystem in the country’s North-eastern region.

 The industry partner of this conclave was the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry (FICCI).

 The conclave was launched by Sarbananda Sonowal, Minister of Ports, Shipping and Waterways and AYUSH.

 The conclave was attended by various stakeholders in the sector of the waterway ecosystem like Senior Government Officials, Policy Planners, Sector Experts, Domestic and International Investors, Infrastructure players, Cruise Tourism industry, Vessel Owners and Operators, Representatives of Major Ports, Cargo Passengers, and representatives from the Governments of Maritime States in India.

 Aim of the conclave

 The aim of this conclave is to fast-track the Multimodal projects for the development of the country’s Northeast region so that business opportunities, economic activities, and employment generation can be enhanced.

 Gauhati University (GU) and the IWAI signed an MoU on the research and development as well as investment and consultancy in inland waterways.

 Brahmaputra Cracker and Polymer Limited (BCPL), Dibrugarh and IWAI also signed an MoU for cargo transportation via inland water transport.

STATEHOOD DAY OF HIMACHAL PRADESH

 Himachal Day is observed on the 15th of April in Himachal Pradesh. The state became a full-fledged state on this day.

 Four districts of Mandi, Chamba, Mahasu and Sirmour were integrated with over two dozen princely states, leading to the formation of Himachal Pradesh as a Union Territory in 1948. Decades later, in 1971, Himachal Pradesh became the 18th state in India with Shimla as its capital.

 It was on this day in 1948 that Himachal Pradesh was created as a province of India. The day is marked with a grand parade in the capital city of Shimla. Local events are also organised in the cities, towns, and villages to mark the day.

 About Himachal Pradesh:

 Himachal Pradesh is a state in northern India. Bordering Tibet, it is noted for its Himalayan landscapes (Himachal means ‘snow-laden region’) and is a popular tourist destination for trekking and enjoying the natural beauty.

 The state also has the fourth-highest per capita income of the Indian state and is the third fastest growing economy in India.

 The word”Himachal” is derived from two Sanskrit words, “Hima” (snow) and “Anchal” (lap). The state, situated amid valleys and hills, virtually sits in the lap of the Himalayas.

 The main language spoken in the state is Hindi but there are several local dialects like Mahasu, Pahari, Mandeali, Kangri, Kullu, Bilaspuri and Kinnauri.

 The recorded history of Himachal Pradesh goes back to the Maurya period, that is, 4th Century B.C.

 The state has beautiful tourist destinations like Shimla – the queen of hill stations, Bilaspur, Mandi, Chamba, Kullu, Dalhousie, Kasauli, Kangra, Palampur, Solan, Manali and Dharamshala.

 The Kalka-Shimla Railway, often called the”toy train”, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Kalka-Shimla Railway traverses the steepest slope (over 5800 ft) in roughly 95 km. The train crosses several bridges and tunnels.

AVSAR- 'CONNECT TO OPPORTUNITIES INITIATIVE'

 The AVSAR- ‘Connect to Opportunities Initiative’ has been launched by Jammu & Kashmir’s Lieutenant Governor Manoj Sinha. It is a dedicated portal that will be used to connect job aspirants of the Union Territory with the industry.

 This initiative was launched under Mission Youth. This newly launched initiative has the aim of creating more than 10,000 job opportunities for the aspirants of the UT in 2022.

 This initiative has been provisioned so that the youth of the UT can be facilitated with real-time information informing the aspirants about job opportunities and pre-placement activities.

 The administration of Jammu & Kashmir has taken various steps to create schemes, infrastructure, and policies to speed up the economic development in the region and to help the youth so that they can achieve self-growth and contribute to society.

 How many institutions will be available in this portal?

 All technical institutions and it is of the UT will be on-boarded on this portal to achieve the best possible outcome for the youths of the UT.

SVANIDHI SE SAMRIDDHI PROGRAMME

 The ‘SVANidhi se Samriddhi’ program has been launched by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) in additional 126 cities across 14 States and UTs of India.

 Despite the COVID-19 pandemic-related challenges in 2020-21, this program was successful in providing social security benefits to lakhs of street vendors and their families across the country thus protecting them from the livelihood's risks.

 On 4th January 2021, Phase 1 of the ‘SVANidhi se Samriddhi’, an additional program under the PM SVANidhi was launched in 125 cities across India.

 In the first phase, 35 lakh street vendors and their families were covered. Scheme sanctions of 22.5 lakh have been extended to them along with 16 lakh insurance benefits under the Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana and the Pradhan Mantri Jeeban Jyoti Yojana.

 Pension benefits of 2.7 Lakh have also been extended under the Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Maandhan Yojana.

 After Phase 1’s success, MoHUA has expanded this program to additional 126 cities and has the aim of covering an additional 28 lakh street vendors and their families across the country. Also, the Ministry has targets of providing 20 lakh scheme sanctions in FY 2022-23.

 About PM SVANidhi

 The Prime Minister Street Vendors AtmaNirbhar Nidhi (PM SVANidhi) program was launched by MoHUA in June 2020.

 Under this scheme, an affordable working capital loan is provided to the street vendors of the country.

 The scheme not only extends loans to the country’s street vendors but also aims for their economic upliftment and holistic development.

 Up to Rs 10 thousand rupees is provided to the street vendors as a working capital loan for the facilitation of the resumption of their livelihoods that was affected due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

GLOBAL AYUSH INVESTMENT & INNOVATION SUMMIT 2022

 Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi will open the Global Ayush Investment & Innovation Summit 2022 at Mahatma Mandir in Gandhinagar, Gujarat.

 The three-day conference will bring together key policymakers, entrepreneurs, investors, startups, and other national and international players to discuss innovation and how India can become a global Ayush destination for entrepreneurship.

 Shri Pravind Jugnauth, Prime Minister of Mauritius, and Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Director General of the World Health Organization (WHO), will attend the summit’s opening ceremony, as will Gujarat Chief Minister Shri Bhupendra Patel, Union Minister of Ayush Shri Sarbananda Sonowal, and Minister of State Dr. Munjpara Mahendrabhai Kalubhai.

 The global ayush investment and innovation conference 2022 will have 5 plenary sessions, 8 roundtables, 6 seminars, and 2 symposiums over the course of three days.

 After the opening ceremony, technical sessions will take place on the first day of the summit. Two roundtables will be held during these sessions, one on the diplomat’s conclave and the other on Indian ayush prospects for the rest of the globe.

 Embassy representatives from the Republic of Congo, Lesotho, Mali, Mexico, Rwanda, Togo, Mongolia, Bangladesh, Chile, Cuba, Gambia, Jamaica, Thailand, Kyrgyzstan, Zimbabwe, Costa Rica, and the US Department of Health and Human Services will attend the diplomatic conclave.

 The second roundtable on the first day will focus on collaboration – G2B interactions between major Ministries and Industries/Entrepreneurs/Start-ups, Ayush in the FMCG sector, and globalisation of yoga certification.

NADABET SEEMA DARSHAN PROJECT

 On 10th April 2022, Union Home Minister Amit Shah launched the Nadabet Seema Darshan Project along the India-Pakistan border in the Banaskantha district of Gujarat.

 The tourism project in Gujarat will help in generating employment and will also stop the migration of people residing in the border villages.

 The government of India has undertaken several initiatives to develop the country’s border infrastructure with the objective of enhancing border security and the newly launched Seema Darshan project is a part of it.

 The cost of this project will be Rs 125 crore.

The Objective of this project

 This border tourism project will help in increasing the people’s respect towards the personnel of the Border Security Force (BSF) and will also help in boosting tourism in this area. With an increase in tourism, employment will also be generated.

 

INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS

4TH INDIA-USA 2+2 MINISTERIAL DIALOGUE

 Secretary of State Antony J. Blinken and Secretary of Defense Lloyd J. Austin III welcomed Ministers of Defense Rajnath Singh and External Affairs Dr S. Jaishankar to Washington, D.C. for the fourth US-India 2+2 Ministerial Dialogue.

 A virtual conference between Prime Minister Narendra Modi and President Joseph Biden preceded the Dialogue.

 With a shared commitment to democracy and pluralism, a multifaceted bilateral agenda, and growing convergence of strategic interests, the United States and independent India are celebrating 75 years of diplomatic relations.

 Both countries seek to maintain a resilient, rules-based international order that protects sovereignty and territorial integrity, upholds democratic values, and promotes peace and prosperity for all.

 The Ministers analysed the broader consequences of the deepening humanitarian catastrophe in Ukraine, as well as their own attempts to respond to it. They demanded an immediate halt to hostilities.

 The Ministers were unanimous in their condemnation of civilian deaths. They emphasised that the modern global order is based on the UN Charter, international law, and all states’ sovereignty and territorial integrity.

 The Ministers reaffirmed their commitment to work closely together at the UN Security Council and in international organisations. The US reiterated its support for India’s permanent membership in a reconstituted UN Security Council as well as its admission to the Nuclear Suppliers Group.

 The United States welcomed India’s commitment to participate in multilateral peacekeeping training in 2022, expand joint capacity-building efforts with third-country partners, and launch a new joint National Investigation Officers Training of Trainers course in partnership with the United Nations, recognising India’s distinguished history of leading peacekeeping missions.

SHEHBAZ SHARIF AS 23RD PM OF PAKISTAN

 On 11th April 2022, Shehbaz Sharif took oath as Pakistan’s 23rd prime minister. Senate chairperson Sadiq Sanjarani administered the oath to Sharif.
 After Shah Mehmood Qureshi, the former foreign minister announced that his party Pakistan Tehreek-i-Insaf will be boycotting the PM polls, Shehbaz Sharif was elected as the Prime Minister unopposed.

 After securing 174 votes (the requirement for a majority is 172), Sharif was declared the prime minister of the country.

 Speaker Ayaz Sadiq announced the result as he presided over the National Assembly session. Shehbaz Sharif is ex-prime minister Nawaz Sharif’s younger brother. He has also served as the Punjab province’s chief minister for three terms.

 The united opposition that deposed Imran Khan from the post of prime minister chose Sharif as their leader.

 Removal of Imran Khan: Imran Khan was removed from the post on 9th April 2022 following a no-confidence late in the night. After his removal, Imran Khan has alleged a conspiracy by the US to topple his government.

HARSHWARDHAN SHRINGLA AS CHIEF COORDINATOR OF G20

 For the G20 summit, which will be hosted in 2023 by India, Foreign Secretary Harsh Vardhan Shringla has been appointed as its chief coordinator.

 Shringla will be retiring on 30th April 2022 and will take charge of this new role from 1st.

 This role has been newly created by the government to organize the summit. The G20 sherpa will remain to be Piyush Goyal, the Indian Commerce Minister.

 About the 2023 G20 Summit: The G20 summit that will be held in India in 2023 will be the country’s biggest-ever multilateral event that has been hosted in recent years.

 This summit provides a tremendous opportunity for the country to showcase the nation’s rich culture, infrastructure, hospitality, and diversity on the global platform.

 About Harsh V. Shringla

 Harsh Vardhan Shringla is an Indian Foreign Service (IFS) officer who has served as India’s 33rd Foreign Secretary. He has also previously served as the Ambassador of India to Thailand, to the United States of America, and as the High Commissioner to Bangladesh.

 He has also published papers related to economic diplomacy, conflict prevention, India-Bangladesh relations, and the Indian diaspora. He joined the Foreign Service in 1984 and has a career that spans over 35 years.

TANZANIA'S FIRST FEMALE PRESIDENT

 Samia Suluhu Hassan is a politician of Tanzania and is currently serving as the country’s sixth. She is a member of the Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) party that is currently ruling the country. She is Tanzania’s first female president.

 She is the third woman head of government of a country in the East African Community. The other two female heads of government are Agathe Uwilingiyimana in Rwanda and Sylvie Kinigi in Burundi.

 On 19th March 2021 she took office after President John Magufuli’s death on 17th March 2021.

 Political Career: In the year 2000, she decided to run for public office and was elected as a member of the Zanzibar House of Representatives and President Amani Karume appointed her as a minister.

 At that time, she was the only high-ranking female minister and her male colleagues looked down upon her. In 2005 she was re-elected and was re-appointed as a minister in another portfolio of the cabinet.

 In the year 2010, she sought election to the National Assembly, won by over 80 per cent of the votes and was then appointed by President Jakaya Kikwete as the Minister of State for Union Affairs.

 In the year 2014, she was elected as the constituent assembly’s Vice-Chairperson and was tasked with drafting Tanzania’s new constitution. In 2015, for the 2015 election, John Magufuli, the presidential nominee of CCM chose her as his running mate thus making her the first female running mate in the history of the party.

 On 5th November 2015, she became the country’s first female vice-president after Magufuli’s victory. In 2020, they were both re-elected for a second five-year term.

 

ECONOMIC AFFAIRS

WTO PROJECTED GLOBAL TRADE GROWTH

 The World Trade Organization (WTO) has revised its global trade growth forecast this year from 4.7 percent to 3 percent due to the impact of the Russia-Ukraine war. The WTO has also warned about a potential food crisis that might cause price surges.

 This WTO report has stated that the conflict which is now in its seventh week has damaged the economy of the world that was at a critical point due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

 The lockdowns in China are also weighing down the economic recovery. The report has found that the conflict between Russia and Ukraine affects the whole world.

 The pandemic along with the war has disrupted global supply chains, increased inflation, and lowered trade growth expectations.

 The WTO has forecasted that the global trade growth in 2022 will be 3 percent while in 2023 it would rise to 3.4 percent. The forecasts for 2022 and 2023 are uncertain due to the conflict.

WORLD BANK FORECASTED INDIA'S GDP GROWTH

 For the fiscal year 2022-23, India’s GDP forecast has been slashed by the World Bank from 8.7 percent to 8 percent. The reason given for the change in forecast is due to rising inflation and worsening global supply caused due to the Russia-Ukraine war.

 Asian Development Bank Outlook 2022

 Overview: South Asia’s growth outlook, excluding Afghanistan has also been slashed to 6.6 percent.

 According to the World Bank, India’s household consumption will be constrained due to the labour market’s incomplete recovery from inflationary and COVID-19-related pressures.

 High food and oil prices due to the war in Ukraine will also have a negative impact on the real incomes of the people. Asian Development Bank Outlook 2022

 The Asian Development Bank Outlook 2022 had earlier said that India will be maintaining its position as the fastest-growing major economy.

 The nation in 2022-23 will have a growth rate of 7.5 percent on the basis of strong investment prospects. In January to December 2022, the growth prospect of China has been stated to be 5 percent.

 India’s Growth in 2023-24 according to the ADB

 In the next fiscal of 2023-24, India’s growth will be accelerating further to 8 percent while in 2023 China will be witnessing a decline in growth to 4.8 percent.

 World Bank’s forecast for other regions

 Pakistan: Pakistan’s growth forecast for the current year which will be ending in June has been raised from 3.4 percent to 4.3 percent. Next year’s growth outlook has been kept unchanged at 4 percent.

 Maldives: The growth forecast of Maldives for this year has been slashed from 11 percent to 7.6 percent.

 Sri Lanka: The growth forecast for Sri Lanka has been raised from 2.1 percent to 2.4 percent but has also issued a warning for the crisis-hit country that the outlook was uncertain due to fiscal imbalances.

 

AWARDS & HONOURS

NILAMANI PHOOKAN AWARDED WITH JNANPITH AWARD

 Assam Chief Minister, Dr Himanta Biswa Sarma presented the country’s highest literary award, the 56th Jnanpith for the year 2021 to one of the most celebrated poets of Assam, Nilamani Phookan.

 Nilmani Phookan is the third person to win the Jnanpith Award from Assam after Mamoni Roisom Goswami and Birendra Kumar Bhattacharya. The Award carried a Citation, a shawl, and Rs. 11 lakh.

 The octogenarian was awarded the Padma Shri in 1990 and received the Sahitya Akademi Fellowship in 2002. He was selected as an ‘Emeritus Fellow’ for a period of two years by the Cultural Department, Govt. of India in 1998. Assam Sahitya Sabha also conferred ‘Sahityacharya’ honour to him.

 The notable works of Phukan are ‘Xurjya Henu Naami Aahe Ei Nodiyedi’, ‘Kabita’ and ‘Gulapi Jamur Lagna’.

 Notably: Novelist Damodar Mauzo was chosen for the 57th Jnanpith Award 2022 for his contribution to Indian literature. The 77-year-old writer was conferred with the country’s highest literary award for his “outstanding contribution to literature”.

1ST LATA DEENANATH MANGESHKAR AWARD TO PM MODI

 Prime Minister Narendra Modi will be honoured with the inaugural Lata Deenanath Mangeshkar Award which is instituted in the memory of the veteran singer Lata Mangeskar.

 PM Modi will receive the award for selfless service to the nation and society. The award ceremony will be held on April 24 which marks the 80th death anniversary of Master Deenanath Mangeshkar (singing legend’s father).

 Among the other awardees will be singer Rahul Despande, who will receive the Master Deenanath Award besides three other special awardees including veteran actress Asha Parekh, actor Jackie Shroff and the Mumbai Dabbawalas, represented by Nutan Tiffin Suppliers.

 

SPORTS

AUSTRALIA TO HOST 2026 COMMONWEALTH GAMES

 The Victoria state of Australia will be hosting the 2026 Commonwealth Games. During the games focus will also be given to boosting the economy of the region.

 An exclusive negotiating period was granted to the capital of Victoria, Melbourne, to secure the hosting rights for the Commonwealth Games.

 The Commonwealth Games are losing relevance, with four of the last five editions being held in Britain or Australia. To host the 2026 editions of the Games, no other nation expressed interest except Australia.

 The 2026 Games will be spread across the cities of Bendigo, Geelong, Gippsland, and Ballarat thus a new multi-city model will be implemented.

 Earlier editions of the Commonwealth Games in Australia: In 2018, Australia hosted the Games on the Gold Coast and the 2006 edition of the games was hosted in Melbourne.

 2022 Edition of the Commonwealth Games: Birmingham, England will be hosting the 2022 edition of the games from 28th July to 8th Aug. Earlier, South Africa was supposed to host this year’s edition but was stripped of hosting rights due to a lack of progress in their preparations.

 About Commonwealth Games

 The Commonwealth Games are also referred to as the Friendly Games. It is an international multi-sport event that is held every four years and involves athletes participating from the Commonwealth of Nations. The first such games were held in 1930.

 

IMPORTANT DAYS AND DATES

WORLD HOMEOPATHY DAY OBSERVED ON 10TH APRIL

 World Homeopathy Day is observed every year on April 10 to spread awareness about homoeopathy and its contribution to the world of medicine.

 The day is also celebrated to commemorate the birth anniversary of Dr Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann. Hahnemann, born in Paris in 1755, founded this branch of medicine and is considered the father of Homeopathy.

 The theme of the day: This year, the theme for World Homeopathy Day 2022 in India is ‘People’s Choice For Wellness.’ The theme, like every year, is decided by the Ministry of AYUSH.

 On this day, a documentary made on Homeopathy, its benefits, and its contribution to medicine, will be released.

 Significance: The day signifies the strong and stable grounds this branch stands on, due to which, the branch still enjoys substantial trust among the masses, despite being flooded with questions and doubts, especially by the allopathic community.

 The day, observed on the birth anniversary of the father of Homeopathy, is aimed at raising awareness among people about the benefits of what is touted as the pseudoscientific system of alternative medicine.

AMBEDKAR JAYANTI CELEBRATED ON 14TH APRIL

 Ambedkar Jayanti (also known as Bhim Jayanti) is celebrated on 14 April to commemorate the birth anniversary of Babasaheb Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar.

 The Day has been observed as an official public holiday throughout India since 2015. In 2022, we are marking the 131st birth anniversary of Babasaheb.

 Dr Ambedkar is known as the Father (chief architect) of the Indian Constitution. He was the first Law and Justice Minister of the country after the independence.

 Dr Bhim has been bestowed with the country’s highest civilian honour, Bharat Ratna in 1990 posthumously.

 Significant Contributions Of Dr B R Ambedkar:

 The contributions of Dr B R Ambedkar have been significant. He fought for protecting the rights of the Dalit community through organising several events. The notable events include Equality Janta, Mook Nayaka, etc.

 The Congress Government had invited him to become the first Law Minister when the country was freed from the British administration on 15 August 1947.

 He was deputed as a Chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee on 29 August 1947. He crafted the new constitution for the country.

 The Constituent Assembly had adopted the new constitution on 26 November 1949.

 His contributions have been enormous in establishing the Central Bank of India, which is the Reserve Bank of India, as he was an economist.

 He authored three books: “The Problem of the Rupee: Its Origin and its Solution,” “Administration and Finance of East India Company,” and “The Evolution of Provincial Finance in British India.”

 Since he was an economist, Dr B R Ambedkar played a vital role in comprehending the Indian economy. People were motivated by him for the growth of the agricultural sector and industrial activities. He also motivated people for better education and community health.

 The Dalit Buddhist Movement was inspired by him.

BR AMBEDKAR BIRTH ANNIVERSARY AS 'EQUALITY DAY'

 Tamil Nadu celebrated 14th April 2022, the birth anniversary of Dr. BR Ambedkar as ‘Equality Day’ from this year onwards. A pledge was also taken across the state on this day.

 The pledge was taken in all government offices across the state. The pledge’s crux was upholding and following equality and the oath against caste discrimination was taken.

 Selected works of Dr. Ambedkar will also be translated and published in Tamil. Social justice’s goal is to achieve equality. MK Stalin also announced that the state government will take quick action on any policies that are aimed toward the growth of all Tamilians of the state.

 In an Adi Dravidar and Tribal Welfare Department meeting the representation was made to declare the birth anniversary of Dr. Ambedkar as Equality Day.

 On 13th April 2022, MK Stalin, the chief minister of Tamil Nadu announced the decision of celebrating Equality Day annually on 14th April.

 Social Justice Day: The birth anniversary of Periyar on 17th September has already been declared the Social Justice Day by the government of Tamil Nadu.

SAVE THE ELEPHANT DAY: APRIL 16TH

 Save the Elephant Day is celebrated on April 16 every year to raise awareness about the dangers elephants face and the various difficulties they have to overcome to live.

 Save The Elephant Day aims to change this alarming trend by educating people about elephants and the plights they face, encouraging everyone to do their bit and helping save them from extinction.

 The Day is established by the Thailand-based Elephant Reintroduction Foundation, to spread awareness among the general people about the significance and consequences of their actions, or inactions on the future of elephants.

 According to WWF data, at present, the population of Pachyderms in India is around 20,000 to 25,000.

UNITED NATIONS COMMEMORATES WORLD HERITAGE DAY

 Every year on April 18, the United Nations commemorates World Heritage Day. The Day is observed to preserve human heritage and recognize the efforts of the organizations working for it.

 Monuments and ancient buildings are an asset to the world. They make for the rich heritage of the nation.
 Since 1983, the International Council on Monuments and Sites has set a theme around which events are centred on the day. The theme for World Heritage Day 2022 is “Heritage and Climate”.

 History of the day:

 The International Day for Monuments and Sites was proposed by the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) on 18 April 1982 and approved by the General Assembly of UNESCO in 1983.

 The aim is to promote awareness about the diversity of cultural heritage of humanity, their vulnerability and the efforts required for their protection and conservation.

 Later in 1983, UNESCO adopted the idea during the 22nd General Conference. In order to restore and conserve historical cities, and dying ancient tribes, World Heritage Day is being observed. The day also sheds light on history.

 World Heritage Sites in India

 India is home to a total of 3691 monuments and sites. Of these 40 are designated as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including places like the Taj Mahal, Ajanta Caves and Ellora Caves.

 World Heritage Sites also include natural sites like the Kaziranga National Park in Assam.

NATIONAL CIVIL SERVICES DAY: 21ST APRIL

 On the 21st of April every year, National Civil Services Day is observed to acknowledge the work of all the officers across the country who are engaged in various public service departments.

 This day also acts as a reminder to the civil servants to run the administration of the nation with the dedication to serving the citizens.

 This date was chosen to commemorate the day when Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Independent India’s first Home Minister, in 1947 addressed the probationers of Administrative Services Officers at Delhi’s Metcalf House in Delhi.

 Civil servants were referred to as the ‘steel frame of India’ by him as they act as the supporting pillars of the country’s administrative system.

 On 21 April 2006, the first such function was held in New Delhi’s Vigyan Bhawan and since then this day has been celebrated as National Civil Service Day.

 Father of Indian Civil Service title has been given to Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.

 About the Prime Minister’s Awards for Excellence in Public Administration

 On the Civil Services Day, this award is awarded to the districts/implementing units for innovation categories and priority programme implementation.

 These awards bring together the civil workers from across the nation to learn about the best practices in the field of public grievances that are being implemented across India and also to connect among them.

 

REPORTS AND INDEXES

NITI AAYOG'S STATE ENERGY & CLIMATE INDEX

 The State Energy and Climate Index (SECI) has been launched by NITI Aayog. It is a first-of-its-kind index that aims to track the efforts made in the energy and climate sector by the states and UTs of India.

 This index’s parameters have been devised while keeping in mind the country’s goals regarding clean energy transition and climate change.

 This index has ranked the states and the UTs of India based on the efforts they have put towards improving energy consumption, energy access, safeguarding the environment, and energy efficiency.
 This index has also helped to move toward the agenda of the accessible, affordable, clean, and efficient energy transition at the State level.

 This index has also encouraged healthy competition among the states and UTs of the nation in different fields of climate and energy.

 Parameters of the Index

 Six parameters have been used by this index that are:

• Access Affordability and Reliability of Energy
• Discoms’ (Power distribution companies) Performance
• Energy Efficiency
• Clean Energy Initiatives
• New Initiatives
• Environmental Sustainability

 These parameters have been further divided into 27 indicators. Based on SECI Round I’s composite score the states and UTs of the country have been ranked as smaller states, larger states, and UTs, based on geographical differences and size.

 The States and the UTs have been categorized into three groups i.e. Achievers, Front Runners, and Aspirants.

 Top 3 performers among the larger states

• Gujarat
• Kerala
• Punjab

 Top 3 performers among the smaller states

• Goa
• Tripura
• Manipur

 Top 3 performers among UTs

• Chandigarh
• Delhi
• Daman & Diu/Dadra & Nagar Haveli

US REPORT ON HUMAN RIGHTS IN INDIA 2021

 Recently, the US State Department released a strong and critical report on human rights in India in 2021.

 The report is submitted each year to the US Congress which is retrospective and contains a country-wise discussion of the state of internationally recognised individual, civil, political and worker rights, as set forth in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international agreements.

 In December 2021, data related to human rights violations in states was provided by the Ministry of Home Affairs in Rajya sabha.

 What are the Key Highlights of the Report?

 Arbitrary Arrest and Detention: Indian law “prohibits arbitrary arrest and detention but both occurred during the year”, with police using “special security laws to postpone judicial reviews of arrests”.
 Pretrial detention was arbitrary and lengthy, sometimes exceeding the duration of the sentence given to those convicted.

 Violations of Privacy: Citing media reports on journalists being targeted for surveillance through the Pegasus malware, the report flagged violations of privacy by government authorities, “including the use of technology to arbitrarily or unlawfully surveil or interfere with the privacy of individuals”.

 Curbs on Free Expression and Media: The report highlighted instances in which the government or actors considered close to the government allegedly pressured or harassed media outlets critical of the government, including through online trolling.

 It detailed the government’s order of February, 2021 directing Twitter to block accounts of journalists covering protests against the three (later repealed) farm laws.

 On Freedom of Association: The report highlighted the cases of Amnesty International India, whose assets were frozen by the Enforcement Directorate, and the suspension of the Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act (FCRA) license of Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (CHRI) for alleged violations.

REPORT ON STATE OF INDIA'S CHILDREN

 The latest report on the State of India’s Children: Status and Trends in Multidimensional Child Development will be jointly developed and launched by NITI Aayog and UNICEF India.

 This was determined when the two organisations signed a Statement of Intent (SoI), reiterating their joint commitment to achieving children’s rights in India.

 The report will create frameworks for understanding health and nutrition, education, water and sanitation, household living standards, and a child-friendly environment across states.

 This endeavour will contribute to India’s commitments to the 2030 Agenda by providing a set of policy suggestions for concerted action in terms of speeding progress toward the SDGs and ensuring holistic development for all children.

 One in every third person in India is a juvenile under the age of 18, while one in every fifth person is an adolescent between the ages of 10 and 19.

 The NITI Aayog and UNICEF India collaboration will develop the methods, technical analysis, reporting, and action planning for the first report on the ‘State of India’s Children,’ focusing on multidimensional aspects of child development such as health, nutrition, education, water and sanitation, protection, and other relevant issues.

 This project will take a whole-of-society approach, incorporating all stakeholders, including Union Ministries, State Governments, Academia, Civil Society Organisations, child rights and civil rights groups.

 

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

PINAKA MK- 1 ENHANCED ROCKET SYSTEM

 The Defence Research and Development Organisation and Indian Army successfully flight-tested a new version of the Pinaka rocket system at the Pokhran firing ranges.

 These included Pinaka Mk-I (Enhanced) Rocket System (EPRS) and Pinaka Area Denial Munition (ADM) rocket systems.

 With these trials, the initial phase of technology absorption of EPRS by the industry has successfully been completed and the industry partners are ready for user trials/series production of the rocket system.

 The Pinaka rocket system has been developed by DRDO lab- Armament Research and Development Establishment, Pune in collaboration with High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Pune.

 About the EPRS system:

 The EPRS is the upgraded version of the Pinaka variant, which has been in service with the Indian Army for the last decade. The system has been upgraded with advanced technologies enhancing the range to meet the emerging requirements.

 After establishing the performance efficacy of the enhanced range version of Pinaka, the technology was transferred to the industries viz. Munitions India Limited (MIL) and Economic Explosives Limited Nagpur.

 Rockets manufactured by MIL under Transfer of Technology from DRDO were flight tested during this campaign. Different variants of munitions and fuzes which can be used in the Pinaka rocket system were also successfully test evaluated in the Pokhran Field Firing Range.

HELINA: ANTI-TANK GUIDED MISSILE

 Helina, the Anti-Tank Guided Missile (ATGM) which is the Nag missile’s helicopter-launched version was again tested on 12th April 2022.

 The testing was conducted in the country’s northern high-altitude mountain regions after it was successfully tested on 11th April 2022 in Pokhran’s desert region.

 The test was conducted as part of the ongoing user validation trials of this missile’s third-generation ‘fire-and-forget’ class missile.

 This missile has been developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).

 During testing, a simulated tank target was engaged accurately by the missile. Scientists of DRDO along with senior Army Commanders witnessed the test.

 This missile has been developed to be integrated with choppers in both the Air Force and the Army. Dhruvastra is the name that is sometimes used to refer to the Air Force version of this missile.

ISRAEL SUCCESSFULLY TEST-FIRED MISSILE DEFENCE SYSTEM

 Israel successfully tested a new laser missile-defence system ‘Iron Beam‘which can destroy any airborne object including drones.

 Iron Beam is the world’s first energy-based weapons system that uses a laser beam to shoot down incoming UAVs, rockets, mortars, long-range missiles, anti-tank missiles etc.

 The Iron Beam which is developed by the Rafael Advanced Defense Systems is using a directed-energy weapon system and can go a long way in providing aerial defence.

 Iron Beam works on a fibre laser system to destroy any airborne object. The Iron Dome defense system has been a great success, with a 90% interception rate against incoming rocket fire.

NEPTUNE: UKRAINE ANTI-SHIP CRUISE MISSILE

 Neptune is the name of a Ukrainian anti-ship cruise missile that was developed by the Luch Design Bureau. The design of this missile is based on the Soviet Kh-35 anti-ship missile. Compared to the Kh-35 it has improved electronics and range.

 This missile system has been developed to destroy transport vessels and surface warships. This missile system entered the service of the Ukrainian Navy in March 2021.

 Development of the missile

 In the Weapons and Security 2015 exhibition that was held in Kyiv, this missile was first revealed. This cruise missile’s first flight samples were manufactured in 2016’s second quarter.

 The production of the advanced missile systems was developed in collaboration with other Ukrainian enterprises like Kharkiv State Aircraft Manufacturing Company, Artem Luch GAhK, Pivdenne YuMZ PivdenMash, Motor Sich (MS-400 turbofan engine), Vyshneve ZhMZ Vizar Kyiv, Radionics (seeker), Lviv LORTA and other radar electronics, Arsenal SDP SE (navigation system), etc.

 MoU with Indonesia: In April 2019, the missile was again successfully tested. In 2020, an MoU was signed by Ukraine with Indonesia to supply a number of Neptune missiles, thus Indonesia became the first foreign buyer of this missile.

 On 13th April 2022, the Russian cruiser Moskva was hit by two Neptune missiles during the Russian invasion of Ukraine.

SARMAT: RUSSIA'S INTER-CONTINENTAL BALLISTIC MISSILE

 Amidst harsh sanctions imposed by the West due to the Ukraine invasion, Russia has tested its new Inter Continental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) Sarmat on 20th April 2022.

 This was ICBM Sarmat’s first test launch after the launch was in 2021. The test was earlier pushed to December 2021 and then later to April 2022.

 The ICBM was from Plesetsk in Russia’s North-West. The target was set in the Kamchatka peninsula which is around 6,000 km away.

 About the missile

 The RS-28 Sarmat whose NATO name is Satan-II is able to carry a minimum of ten decoys and warheads. It has the capability of firing over either pole of the earth and has a range of 11,000 to 18,000 km.

 This missile will also be posing a challenge to the western powers’ ground-and-satellite-based radar tracking systems.

 The Sarmat will be Russia’s first ICBM that can carry smaller hypersonic boost-glide vehicles. These are hard to intercept as they are manoeuvrable. This ICBM is much more lethal than the R-36M Voyevoda ICBMs (NATO name Satan) as it has upgraded guidance systems, electronic countermeasures, and alternative warhead carrying capacity.

 

MISCELLANEOUS

MUMBAI & HYDERABAD AS 2021 TREE CITY OF THE WORLD

 The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) and Arbor Day Foundation have jointly recognised Mumbai and Hyderabad as the ‘2021 Tree City of the World.

 The two Indian cities have won the recognition for their “commitment to growing and maintaining urban trees and greenery in building healthy, resilient and happy cities”.

 It must be noted that Hyderabad has been recognised for a second consecutive year. In 2021, Hyderabad was the only city in India to be recognised as a ‘ 2020 Tree City of the World’.

 Apart from Hyderabad and Mumbai 136 other cities from 21 countries have been recognised in the third edition of the Tree City of the World list.

 About the programme:

 The United Nations’ ‘Tree City of the World’ programme provides direction, assistance, and worldwide recognition for communities’ dedication to its urban forest, and provides a framework for a healthy, sustainable urban forestry.

1ST COUNTRY TO GIVE LEGAL RIGHT TO WILD ANIMALS

 Ecuador, a South American Country, became the first country in the world to give legal rights to wild animals.

 The highest court in the country has ruled in favour of the case that focused on a woolly monkey named “Estrellita” who was taken from her home to a zoo, where she passed just a week later.

 The court decided to rule in favour of Estrellita and said that her rights had been violated by the government.

 However, they added that the animal’s rights were also violated by the owner when she removed her from her natural habitat at a young age. The Court has finally stated that animals are subject to rights protected by the rights of nature.

 About the Estrellita: Estrellita was just a month old when she was taken away from the wild so that she could become a pet for librarian Ana Beatriz Burbano Proaño.

 Proaño took care of Estrellita for 18 years, however, was seized by authorities in 2019, as owning wild animals are illegal in the South American country.

 After being relocated to a zoo, the monkey sadly died. Following the tragic incident, the owner Ana Beatriz Burbano Proañ filed a habeas corpus asking the court to rule that the monkey’s rights were violated.

103 YEARS OF JALLIANWALA BAGH MASSACRE

 The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, also known as the Amritsar massacre, took place on 13 April 1919. This year we commemorate the 103rd anniversary of the terror that shook the entire country to a standstill.

 The Jallianwala Bagh garden has been converted into a memorial. And thousands of people on this day come to pay their respects to the martyred men, and women, who were killed on that fateful day for the nation.

 What Happened in Jallianwala Bagh in 1919?

 On 13 April 1919, thousands of people were gathered at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar, Punjab.

 This day marks the beginning of New Year for the Sikhs and is also celebrated as the Baisakhi festival all over Punjab. People travel days to reach Punjab on this auspicious day to celebrate Baisakhi with their family and loved ones.

 On the morning of Baisakhi, Colonel Reginald Dyer had announced the implementation of a curfew throughout Amritsar and a ban on all processions that even prohibited a group of 4 or more people to meet publicly.

 At about 12:40 PM, Dyer received confidential information about the meeting taking place at Jallianwala Bagh that may result in riots and protests.

 The main entrance was also guarded by the armed troops. There were armoured cars accompanying the troops that were supposedly carrying machine guns and explosives.

 On Dyer’s orders, there was ruthless firing done on the uninformed crowd. There were about 25,000 people present there at the time of the firing. Some tried to escape while some choose to jump in the solitude well built in the premises of Jallianwala Bagh.

 The troops were ordered to start shooting from the most densely crowded spot to harm the maximum number of people. This heinous act of violence resulted in extreme mass killing.

 The firing continued for about 10 minutes, and it only ceased when the ammunition supplies were almost exhausted.

WORLD'S HIGHEST TUNNEL AT SHINKU LA PASS

 The world’s highest tunnel will be constructed by the Border Roads Organisation (BRO) at Shinku La Pass at 16,580 feet. This tunnel will connect Himachal Pradesh to Ladakh.

 The construction of this tunnel by the Border Roads Organisation (BRO) will begin by July 2022.

 This tunnel will connect Ladakh’s Zanskar Valley to Himachal Pradesh. Project Yojak has been set up by the central government to execute this ambitious project.

 By the year 2025, the construction of this tunnel will be completed. The tunnel’s south portal will be at Shinku La. The tunnel’s north portal will be at Lhakhang.

 This tunnel will help in boosting the economy of the Zanskar Valley as the travel time between Himachal Pradesh and Ladakh will be reduced after this tunnel is opened.



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