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SM Current Affairs JULY 2022 Set 03, Current Affairs Notes By Success Mantra Coaching Institute GTB Nagar Delhi

SM Current Affairs JULY 2022 Set 03

Diksha Sharma 15 MINUTES


It gives us great pleasure to release the monthly edition of the PRAVAHINI – Monthly e-Compendium & Weekly e-Periodicals of Current Affairs. The magazine’s members have shown considerable cooperation as well as devotion. We at successmantra.in work tirelessly to create this magazine and bring it to you with a great sense of gratitude.

The PRAVAHINI July-2022 eBook covers the current events that happened in the month of July. Current Affairs is a crucial component of any competitive exams including CLAT, AILET, DU-LLB, HM, CAT, IAS, PCS, SSC, Banking, MBA and various other competitive examinations.

Current Affairs play the bigger role in many competitive and government exams. It holds the power of making or breaking your chance of success. Therefore, the candidates should cover the Current Affairs thoroughly and smartly.

The PRAVAHINI July-2022 eBook is divided into different sections keeping in mind the need of various exams. The sections covered namely International, National, Economy, Ecology and Environment, Science & Technology, Legal Affairs, Sports, States News Makers and few others.

We would also be pleased to receive any suggestion that could assist us with the upcoming editions.

Success Mantra (GTB Nagar, Delhi)
Website: www.successmantra.in
Mail Id: [email protected]



  • National Affairs
  • International Affairs
  • Economic Affairs
  • Appointments
  • Awards And Honors
  • Important Dates & Sports
  • Reports And Indexes
  • Science & Technology
  • Miscellaneous




Draupadi Murmu was recently elected as the 15th President of India. She is scheduled to take oath on July 25, 2022. There was a contest between Droupadi Murmu (BJP-led NDA candidate) and Yashwant Sinha (Joint Opposition Candidate), for the President’s position.

Lesser-known facts about Draupadi Murmu:

Droupadi Murmu, aged 64, has become the first tribal President and second female President of India.

She is also the first President belonging to Odisha. She was born in Mayurbhanj district in Odisha, in the Santhal tribal community.

Her political career started in 1997, after she joined the BJP. In 1997, she was elected as councilor of Rairangpur district in Odisha.

In 2007, she received the ‘Nilakantha Award’ for best MLA of the year. She became the 9th and 1st tribal governor of Jharkhand in 2015 and served till 2021.


Prime Minister Narendra Modi has unveiled Varuna, India’s first passenger drone. PM Modi is seen watching the demonstration of the drone.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi asserted that the current government has ensured last-mile delivery of services with the help of technology, including drones.

The Prime Minister was there to address the Naval Innovation and Indigenisation Organisation (NIIO) seminar ‘Swavlamban’ which took place at Dr Ambedkar International Centre in New Delhi.

‘Varuna’ drone: The makers of this indigenous pilot-less ‘Varuna’ drone startup Sagar Defence Engineering demonstrated this in his presence.

This ‘Varuna’ drone has been designed and developed by a startup and has the capacity to carry one person inside.


On July 20, 2022, The Supreme Court of India accepted the report of Jayant Kumar Banthia Commission. Court also gave direction to Maharashtra State Election Commission to hold elections in accordance with the report.

Highlights of the Jayant Kumar Banthia Commission report include:

This report has paved the way for candidates who belong to Other Backward Classes in Local Bodies’ Elections in Maharashtra.

The Commission has recommended 27 reservations in local bodies.

This recommendation has been accepted by the Supreme Court. Thus, OBCs will get 27% political reservation in local self-government elections to be held in the state.

As per report, reservation should be provided to OBCs in proportion to their population in each local body. However, this reservation should not affect the statutory reservation for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.

It is subject to a reservation limit of 50%. As per commission, the backward class of citizens (including OBCs) accounts for 37% of the total population. But it is different in each of the local bodies.

Jayant Kumar Banthia Commission is a six-member commission, set up by Maharashtra government in March 2022, to look into the matter of reservation of Other Backward Classes (OBCs) in local bodies. It submitted its report on July 7, 2022.


Jawaharlal Nehru Port has become the first 100 per cent Landlord Major Port of India having all berths being operated on the PPP model.

The PPP model of investment in Indian ports has made remarkable progress in the last 25 years, beginning from the Jawaharlal Nehru Port, resulting in capacity addition and productivity improvement.

JNP is one of the leading container ports in the country and is ranked 26th among the top 100 global ports (as per Lloyd's List Top 100 Ports 2021 Report).

About the Jawaharlal Nehru Port Container Terminal:

The Jawaharlal Nehru Port Container Terminal (JNPCT) has 2 berths with a total length of 680m and a 15m draft which will be handed over under this PPP contract along with the backup area of 54.74 hectares for 30 years.

JNPCT is presently handling 9000 TEUs capacity vessels and with the upgrade it can handle 12200 TEUs capacity vessels. It is also proposed to increase the RMQC rail span from 20 meters to 30.5 meters at the port.


The five years of the Pradhan Mantri Vaya Vandana Yojana are now complete. 21 July, 2017 marked the official launch of the programme.

The programme is a social security programme for the elderly that aims to provide them with a guaranteed minimum pension based on a guaranteed return on the purchase price or subscription fee.
Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY), previously known as the Indira Gandhi Matritva Sahyog Yojana, is a maternity benefit program run by the government of India.

It was originally launched in 2010 and renamed in 2017. The scheme is implemented by the Ministry of Women and Child Development.


If the national flag is flown in the open and is raised by a member of the public, it may now fly through the night.

The Flag Code of India 2002 was revised by the Ministry of Home Affairs to permit the flying of the national flag even at night as the federal government begins its Har Ghar Tiranga campaign. The flag could previously only be flown between sunrise and dusk.

The ministry stated that clause XI of paragraph 2.2 of the Flag Code has been substituted by the following phrase: “where the flag is displayed in the open or displayed on the house of a member of the public, it may be flown day and night.”

The flag code has already been altered by the government to permit the use of polyester and machine-made flags. The government amended paragraph 1.2 of Part I of the flag code in a notification last year.


The Union government brought the “Anti-Maritime Privacy Bill 2019”, in line with India’s commitment with the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), 1982.

India had ratified the UNCLOS in 1995. Anti-Maritime Piracy Bill 2019 was introduced in the aftermath of kidnapping of 18 Indians aboard a crude oil carrier, off the coast of Nigeria

Key Features of the Bill include:

The Bill enables Indian authorities to take action against piracy in the high seas. It will be applicable to all parts of the sea adjacent to and beyond the Exclusive Economic Zone of India.

Under it; the act of piracy will be a punishable offence. It provides for life imprisonment or death, if the piracy comprises of attempted murder, or results into death.

In cases of attempting to commit piracy, or directing others to participate in it, there will be punishment of up to 14 years along with a fine.

It empowers the authorities to seize a ship or aircraft under the control of pirates and property on board.


On July 26, 2022, India started it’s biggest-ever spectrum auction, involving telephone and internet data signals. Under the spectrum process, 72 GHz (gigahertz) of 5G airwaves have been put on offer at the cost of Rs 4.3 lakh crore.

Significance of the 5G spectrum include:

Fifth generation or 5G spectrum offers ultra-high speeds, which is 10 times more than the speed of 4G.

It will also provide lag-free connectivity. It would finally enable connected devices to share data in real-time. The 5G spectrum also powers the ultra-low latency connections, allowing the download of full-length high-quality movies or videos on a mobile device in a few seconds.

It will also enable solutions like e-health, life-saving use cases, connected vehicles, advanced mobile cloud gaming and immersive augmented reality & metaverse experiences.

Bidding process has started in which Reliance Jio, Bharti Airtel, Adani Enterprises and Vodafone Idea are ready to bid for 5G spectrum.


Burhanpur district of Madhya Pradesh, popularly known as the ‘Darwaza of Dakhin’, became the first Certified ‘Har Ghar Jal’ district in the Country.

Only district in the country, people from each of 254 villages in Burhanpur have declared their villages as ‘Har Ghar Jal’ through a resolution passed by Gram Sabhas.

When Jal Jeevan Mission was launched on August 15, 2019, only 37,241 rural households (36.54%) out of a total of 1,01,905 households in Burhanpur had potable drinking water through tap connections.

Now, within a span of 34 months, all the 1,01,905 rural households have access to potable drinking water through tap connections. Furthermore, all 640 schools, 547 Anganwadi centres and 440 other public institutions have tap connections.


The Gujarat government has announced a dedicated ‘Gujarat Semiconductor Policy 2022-27’ with a view to generating at least 2,00,000 new employment opportunities during a period of five years.

The Gujarat government has also decided to develop a “semicon city” which would be a part of the Dholera Special Investment Region.

The projects approved under the Design-linked Incentive scheme of the Government of India will not be eligible for availing of the benefits under the new policy, said the state government press release.

Under the new policy:

The state government will provide heavy subsidies on power, land and water tariffs for entrepreneurs interested in investing in semiconductors or display fabrication manufacturing.

The primary objective of the current government is to make Gujarat a forerunner in developing the Electronics System Design & Manufacturing (ESDM) ecosystem.

The semiconductor policy will provide assistance to one project each, semiconductor and display fabrication. In case of multiple applications, the State-appointed high-powered committee will make recommendations on the basis of credentials of projects.


The 11th Agriculture Census 2021-22 was launched by Union Minister Narendra Singh Tomar on July 28, 2022. It was launched to gather data on several parameters, including operational holdings. This year, data will be collected via smartphones and tablets for the first time.

Key facts to know about Agricultural Census 2021-22:

The fieldwork for the 11th Census will start in August 2022. Agriculture Census is conducted every 5 years.

Main focus of the census is on increasing the income of the farmers and empowering them by organizing small farmers.

Agriculture Census in India:

Agriculture Census Scheme has been undertaken by the Agriculture Ministry since 1970-71. For this, 1970-71 was taken as a reference year.

So far, ten Agriculture Censuses have been conducted. Last edition of the Agriculture census was conducted in 2015-16.


First All India District Legal Services Authorities Meet was held July 30, 2022. Its inaugural session was addressed by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. It was also attended by Chief Justice N V Ramana and other judges of the Supreme Court.

Highlights of the meet include;

It was held by the National Legal Services Authority (NALSA). Meeting dwelled on creation of the integrated procedure, with the objective of bringing homogeneity and synchronisation across District Legal Services Authorities.
NALSA was established on November 9, 1995, in accordance with the authority of Legal Services Authorities Act 1987. It was established with the objective of providing free legal services to eligible candidates as well as to organize Lok Adalats to resolve cases timely.

The Chief Justice of India acts as the patron-in-chief of NALSA. On the other hand, the second senior-most Judge of the Supreme Court of India acts as the Executive-Chairman.




The 13th Petersberg Climate Dialogue began in Berlin, Germany. The two-day informal ministerial meet is being chaired by Germany and Egypt, hosts of this year’s annual climate meet (COP-27).

The informal ministerial meeting proposes to build consensus and provide political direction to resolve divergences aimed at improving the implementation of climate action, the core goal of COP-27.

Ministers and delegations from several countries recalled the urgency to move to the implementation of all the previous resolutions made during the last meeting in order to limit global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius.

About the Petersberg Climate Dialogue:

The Petersberg Climate Dialogue will pave the way for a successful global climate conference in Egypt in November. Since its inception in 2010, the Petersberg Dialogue has served as a forum for ministers to build political consensus that helps resolve differences on issues holding up progress in negotiations.


On July 19, 2022, Union Commerce and Industry minister Piyush Goyal attended the “Confederation of Indian Industry (CII)-Exim Bank Conclave on India-Africa Growth Partnership”.

During the conclave, he called to strengthen and expand India-Africa ties. According to him, India can present emerging technologies to expand commerce, investment, trade, and opportunities for the youth of Africa.

He highlighted the immense possibilities between both the countries and asked the countries to expand the bilateral relation. The Conclave showcased how India can play a significant role in the economic development of countries in Africa.

India can help in skill development in industries, financial inclusion, employment, creation of infrastructure, providing connectivity by increasing penetration of telecom networks besides fulfilling the basic needs of people across the African continent.


Egypt and an Indian company have signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) to construct a green hydrogen factory in the Suez Canal Economic Zone, according to a cabinet announcement.
The MoU states that Indian ReNew Power Private Limited (RENE.BO) will invest $8 billion to construct a facility that will create 20,000 tonnes of green hydrogen annually.


ReNew Power and the Egyptian government signed a preliminary deal to invest up to $8 billion to create green hydrogen there.

ReNew is one of numerous Indian businesses exploring the potential of green hydrogen, which is thought to be essential for decarbonizing difficult-to-reduce heavy industries.

To support Prime Minister Narendra Modi‘s goal of making India a global leader in this field, public sector majors and conglomerates controlled by Gautam Adani and Mukesh Ambani have committed significant investments in the green hydrogen value chain.


According to microblogging platform Twitter, India accounts for the highest number of legal demands worldwide, to remove content posted by journalists and news outlets on the platform, in July-December 2021.

It made 114 such requests. This data was presented in the Twitter Transparency Report.

Important findings of the report include;

India is only behind the United States in asking for Twitter account information. India accounts for 19% of total information requests worldwide.

India is among top five countries to give content-blocking orders to Twitter, for all kinds of users, in July-December 2021.

After India, other countries accounting for high legal demands include- Turkey, Russia, and Pakistan. Turkey made 78 such demands, Russia made 55, and Pakistan made 48 demands.


The focal points for India, France, and the United Arab Emirates met in trilateral fashion.

Maritime Security, Humanitarian Aid and Disaster Relief, Blue Economy, Regional Connectivity, Cooperation in Multilateral Fora, Energy and Food Security, Innovation and Startups, Supply Chain Resilience, and Cultural and People-to-People Cooperation were some of the potential areas of trilateral cooperation that the three sides discussed.
The next measures for enhancing trilateral cooperation in the Indo-Pacific area were also discussed.

The three parties discussed potential trilateral cooperation in the areas of maritime security, Humanitarian assistance and disaster relief (HADR), blue economy, regional connectivity, participation in multilateral fora, cooperation on energy and food security, innovation and startups, supply chain resilience, and cross-cultural and people-to-people exchange.




The Asian Development Bank (ADB), has slashed India’s GDP growth forecast to 7.2 per cent for FY23. Earlier this was estimated at 7.5 per cent.

Meanwhile, the Manila-based multilateral development bank has revised down FY24 growth forecast to 7.8 per cent, from 8 per cent estimated earlier. It, however, raised the inflation forecast for India to 6.7% for FY23 from the 5.8 % estimated earlier.

Why does this happen?

ADB added that private investment would soften due to the higher cost of borrowing for firms as the RBI continues to raise policy rates to contain inflation.

The RBI’s monetary policy committee hiked the repo rate by 90 basis points in two consecutive months, May (an off-cycle policy review) and June, raising the repo rate to 4.9%.

The rupee touched an all-time low of 80.06 against the dollar. The domestic currency has depreciated about 7.5% against the greenback in 2022 so far.

Asian Development Bank Headquarters: Mandaluyong, Philippines.
Asian Development Bank President: Masatsugu Asakawa.
Asian Development Bank Founded: 19 December 1966.


India recently became the largest recipient of remittances worldwide. As per World Bank, it received USD 87 billion in 2021, accounting for a growth of 4.6%. India is followed by China and Mexico, each accounting for USD 53 billion remittances.

If we were to talk about current trends in India’s inward remittances

In India, the overall inward remittances remained adaptable during the pandemic situation.

However, there can be a big shift now. As per a central bank survey, the share of remittances from the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) inward remittances in India has decreased from over 50% in 2016- 17 to 30 per cent in 2020- 21.
Remittances from Gulf countries to India declined due to migration from India to the GCC region, strict labour laws, high work permit renewal fees, slow-moving oil prices, and taxes.
Share of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka has been reduced to half in 2020-2021. Earlier, these states were dominating the GCC region and were big contributors in terms of remittance. These states now account for 25% of total remittances since 2016-17.

Maharashtra has become the largest recipient state, leaving behind Kerala. Advanced economies have emerged as big sources of remittances to India, in the midst of steady migration of skilled workers.


The Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council (BIRAC) recently released its “India Bioeconomy Report 2022”. Report has been prepared on the basis of data on the contribution of the biotech sector to the economy.

Key findings of the report include:

As per report, India’s bioeconomy is expected to reach USD 150 billion by 2025 and more than USD 300 billion by 2030.

In 2021, India’s bioeconomy will touch USD 80 billion, accounting for a growth of 14.1 per cent, as compared to USD 70.2 billion in 2020.

USD 219 million of bioeconomy were generated daily in 2021. Three biotech start-ups were set up every day, on an average, in 2021. Thus, 1128 biotech start-ups were set up in 2021.


The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has slashed India’s growth forecast for 2022-23 (FY23) by 80 basis points to 7.4 per cent from 8.2%, citing less favourable external conditions and rapid policy tightening by the central bank.

However, despite the growth downgrade, India will remain one of the fastest growing major economies in the world in 2022-23 and 2023-24. Only Saudi Arabia, estimated to grow 7.6% in 2022, is expected to outpace India.

However, growth in the Kingdom is expected to slow to 3.7% in the following year.

Indian Scenario: For India, its growth downturn mainly reflects the global downturn which in turn affects the exports of the country and the tightening of the monetary policy is also making it less attractive for investors to invest in the economy and hence contributing to the economic shortfall.

The Global prospect- In comparison, China’s growth is estimated to slow to 3.3% in 2022 from 4.4% estimated earlier by the IMF.

Other emerging markets and developing economies, including Russia, South Africa, and Brazil, saw an upward revision in their economic forecasts on improved outlook.
The IMF also cut the global growth outlook and warned that the world may soon be on the brink of a recession.


The European Investment Bank (EIB) recently joined the Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI). CDRI is led by India. The EIB-CDRI coalition is aimed at limiting the destruction caused due to climate change.

As a part of this;

EIB will work in association with national governments, multilateral development banks, UN agencies, and the private sector for encouraging the fast development of infrastructure which are resilient to climate change and natural disasters in developing as well as developed countries.

It will provide advisory and financial support to members of CDRI. It will also make sure that members of CDRI get benefits from all the relevant EU initiatives.

EID seeks to work with CDRI members, in a bid to unlock the benefits of EU initiatives that are aimed at attaining sustainable global connectivity like Global Gateway as well as climate action initiatives like EU Green Deal.


India received the highest annual Foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows of almost $85 billion in FY 21-22. India is rapidly emerging as a preferred country for FDI in the manufacturing sector.

FDI Equity inflow in Manufacturing Sectors has increased by 76% in FY 2021-22 ($ 21.34 billion) compared to previous FY 2020-21.

What is FDI?

Foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment made by a company or an individual in one country into business interests located in another country. FDI is an important driver of economic growth.

India’s Position In the World:

As per the UNCTAD World Investment Report (WIR) 2022, in its analysis of the global trends in FDI inflows, India has moved to 7th rank among the top 20 host economies for 2021.

Even in this hard time, this is a good signal that the economy is doing very well and resilient from the global disturbances.

Top 5 States receiving the highest FDI Equity Inflow during FY 2021-22 :

Karnataka (37.55%),
Maharashtra (26.26%),
Delhi (13.93%),
Tamil Nadu (5.10%) and
Haryana (4.76%)


According to a recent report, Crypto Jacking has increased to a record high in 2022, even though the number of digital assets has decreased.

In the first half of 2022, the number of global crypto jacking has increased by approximately USD 66 million as compared to 2021.

About Crypto Jacking:

It is a type of cybercrime, in which cryptocurrencies are mined through a hacked computer. Due to this, cyber-criminals are developing and distributing crypto mining malware. When the malware gets loaded onto a compromised device, it mints new coins. However, it creates vulnerabilities in the web browsers and extensions of browsers.




The international financial institution, World Bank has appointed Indermit Gill, as its chief economist and senior vice-president for development economics at the multilateral development bank.

Gill will be only the second Indian to serve as chief economist at the World Bank. Kaushik Basu was the first, having served in the job from 2012-2016.

Previous work and career of Indermit Gill:

Gill, currently vice-president for equitable growth, finance, and institutions at the Bank, leads the work on macroeconomics, debt, trade, poverty, and governance.

Between 2016 and 2021, he was a professor of public policy at Duke University and a non-resident senior fellow in the Global Economy and Development program at the Brookings Institution.




The winners of the 68th National Film Awards were announced in New Delhi. This year’s awards ceremony honoured films from 2020 as well due to COVID-19-related delays.

The event is organised by the Directorate of Film Festivals, which comes under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. Union Minister of Information and Broadcasting, Anurag Thakur announced the award winners.

Soorarai Pottru won three of the four biggest awards of the night, while Tanhaji The Unsung Warrior also took home major trophies.

Best Feature Film: Soorarai Pottru
Best Director: Sachidanandan KR, Ayyappanum Koshiyum
Best Popular Film Providing Wholesome Entertainment: Tanhaji
Best Actor: Suriya for Soorarai Pottru and Ajay Devgn for Tanhaji
Best Actress: Aparna Balamurali, Soorarai Pottru

About the National Film Awards:

The National Film Awards is the most prominent film award ceremony in India. Established in 1954, it has been administered, along with the International Film Festival of India and the Indian Panorama, by the Indian government’s Directorate of Film Festivals since 1973.


The Winston Churchill Leadership Award was presented to President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelensky. British Prime Minister Boris Johnson presented the award on July 26, 2022, after comparing Winston Churchill and Zelensky in times of crises.

Volodymyr Zelensky was presented this award for standing against Russian invasion of Ukraine on February 24, 2022 and fighting back. The situation was similar to what Churchill had faced in 1940.

The Churchill leadership award:

The Winston Churchill Leadership award was first given in 2006. It has been present to Prince Charles, former US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright and former British Prime Ministers Margaret Thatcher and John Major in the past.

Winston Churchill: Sir Winston Churchill was a British statesman, writer and soldier. He also served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War, as well as from 1951-1955.




The Indian Olympic Association (IOA) inked a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Gujarat Olympic Association (GOA) and Gujarat State Government to jointly conduct the 36th National Games 2022 on July 22.

The 36th National Games 2022 will be held in Gujarat. It will be held across 6 cities of Gujarat, in which all the 28 states and 8 Union Territories will participate.

In all, 36 sports will be hosted, in line with the tagline “Sports for Unity”. This year, Yogasana and Mallakhamba have been added to the list of games. Thus, it will promote indigenous sports in India.

The National Games 2022 will be held across 6 cities in Gujarat, viz., Gandhinagar, Surat, Ahmedabad, Rajkot, Vadodara, and Bhavnagar.

Logo of the National Games:

On the occasion of signing of the MoU, a logo for the 36th National Game 2022 was also launched. The logo depicts Gujarat’s two enduring and proud symbols viz., Statue of Unity of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and Gir Asiatic Lion.


Neeraj Chopra continues to create history as he won the silver medal in the men’s Javelin throw event in the World Athletics Championship 2022.

In his fourth attempt, he managed to record a throw of 88.13m, with this historic performance he became the only second Indian Athlete to win a medal at World Championship, after Anju Bobby George who won a bronze medal in Long Jump at the 2003 World Championship held in Paris.

He was awarded the silver medal as the gold medal was bagged by Anderson Peters who recorded a throw of 90.54m in his final attempt before Neeraj. Meanwhile, the bronze medal was bagged by Czech Republic’s Jakub Vadlejch.


The 22nd edition of the Commonwealth Games kicked off with a glitzy opening ceremony at the Alexander Stadium in Birmingham, United Kingdom.

The Prince of Wales, reading out from the Queen’s letter, declares the Games open. A total of 72 teams took part in the parade into Birmingham’s Alexander Stadium. PV Sindhu and Manpreet Singh were India’s flag-bearers at the parade of the CWG opening ceremony.

A total of 54 nations are participating in this sports extravaganza and 6,500 athletes will compete in 280 medal events.

The Indian contingent consists of 215 athletes competing across 16 disciplines.




The Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT) observed the 162nd Income Tax Day (also known as Aaykar Diwas) on 24 July 2022.

The purpose of this tax was to compensate for the losses incurred by the British regime during the first war of independence against British Rule in 1857. The day was first celebrated in 2010.

On 24 July 1980, Income Tax was introduced for the first time in India by Sir James Wilson. The purpose of this tax was to compensate for the losses incurred by the British regime during the first war of independence against British Rule in 1857.

About the Central Board of Direct Taxes:

The Central Board of Direct Taxes is a statutory authority functioning under the Central Board of Revenue Act, 1963.

The officials of the Board in their ex-officio capacity also function as a Division of the Ministry dealing with matters relating to levy and collection of direct taxes. Historical Background of C.B.D.T.


On July 23, India celebrates the National Broadcasting Day, with the aim of reminding people regarding the impact of radio on our lives.

It marks the establishment of first-ever radio broadcast “All India Radio (AIR)” in India. All India Radio (AIR) celebrated the day by holding a symposium on Creation of New India and Broadcasting Medium in New Delhi.

The day is significant for India because:

Indian radio played an important role in creating an independent India. Azad Hind Radio of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose as well as Congress Radio helped uniting Indians to fight against the British. Akashvani also helped Bangladesh in gaining independence from Pakistan in 1971 war.

All India Radio was established on July 23, 1927 as a private company named “Indian Broadcasting Company ltd (IBC)”. To mark this, National Broadcasting Day is celebrated. The National Broadcasting Day was created in 1936.


The World Federation of Neurology (WFN) celebrates World Brain Day every July 22, focusing on a different theme each year.

According to WHO, good brain health is a state in which every individual can realize their own abilities and optimize their cognitive, emotional, psychological and behavioural functioning to cope with life situations.

What is the theme of World Brain Day 2022?

World Brain Day (WBD) 2022 is dedicated to the theme “Brain Health for all” as our brains continue to be challenged by pandemics, wars, climate change and the myriad of disorders impacting human existence globally.


Kargil Vijay Diwas is the celebration of India’s historic win over Pakistan on July 26, 1999. The Indian Army successfully removed Pakistani forces who were illegally occupying a hilltop at the Indian side of the Line of Control (LoC) at Kargil, Ladakh.

To commemorate this victory and remember those who sacrificed their lives for this country, Kargil Vijay Diwas is celebrated annually in India on July 26.

History of Kargil War:

As history has it, India was successful in evicting the Pakistani troops from its territory as the war ended on July 26. This momentous day came to be known as Kargil Vijay Diwas. It should be noted that 527 soldiers sacrificed their lives for the country during the war.

The Kargil War was fought between May-July of 1999 in the Kargil district of Jammu and Kashmir along the Line of Control (LoC) in which India got victory.
The Kargil war was fought for more than 60 days and ended on 26 July.

Indian Army Operation Vijay:

The operation was launched by the Indian Army twice in Indian history. The first Operation Vijay was launched in 1961 which led to the capture of Goa, Anjediva islands and Daman and Diu.

The second operation was launched in 1999. Both the operations were of huge success. However, Kargil Vijay However, the Kargil Vijay Diwas is marked by the culmination of the Kargil war.

July 26 is celebrated as “Kargil Vijay Diwas” every year to mark the successful completion of “Operation Vijay” that ended the 3-month war along the Line of Control. Nearly 490 Indian army officers, soldiers and jawans were martyrs during the course of the battle.


On July 28, World Hepatitis Day is celebrated across the World, annually.

The day seeks to raise awareness on Hepatitis, which causes deaths of around 125 000 people in Africa every year, even though the disease can be cured.

Theme of the World Hepatitis Day 2022:

In the year 2022, the World Hepatitis Day is being celebrated under the theme- “Bringing hepatitis care closer to you”.

This theme is aimed at highlighting the usefulness of bringing hepatitis care closer to primary health care facilities and communities.

It also seeks to ensure better access to treatment and care.


On July 29, the International Tiger Day is celebrated across the world. It is also known as World Tiger Day. Year 2022 is marking the 12th International Tiger Day.

The day is aimed at promoting a global system to protect natural habitats of tigers, raising public awareness on risks and challenges faced by tigers worldwide.

History of the day:

The World Tiger Day was founded in 2010, during Saint Petersburg Tiger Summit 2010. During the summit, representatives from 13 countries declared that; tiger-populated countries will start initiatives to double the population of tigers by 2022.

Tigers in India:

Tiger is the national animal of India. The country is home to more than half of the world's wild tigers, with an estimated 2,226 number of Tigers.

However, since 2012, India has lost 1,059 tigers. Madhya Pradesh recorded the highest number of deaths. Madhya Pradesh is known as the ‘tiger state’ of India. As per National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA), 75 tigers have lost life so far in 2022.


World Nature Conservation Day is observed on July 28 every year. The objective is to spread awareness regarding the preservation of nature and biodiversity for a healthy environment which is required for stable and prospering humankind.

It is also marked as the day to create positive opinions about climate change. World Nature Conservation Day acknowledges that a healthy environment is a foundation for a stable and healthy society.
World Nature Conservation Day 2022: Theme: This year World Nature Conservation Day will be celebrated under the theme “Cut Down on Plastic.”

The World Nature Conservation Day also creates awareness of the management and utilization of the resources. While the exact origin of the day is unknown, the aim of celebrating the day is to introspect on how we have exploited nature so far.




Third edition of the India Innovation Index released by NITI Aayog on July 21, 2022. The index assesses performance of states in the innovation ecosystem on the basis of NITI Aayog’s ranking released the previous year.

Key Features of India Innovation Index 2021 can be summed up as:

The index inspects the innovation capacities and ecosystems across states, at the sub-national level. It highlights recent factors and catalysts, in a bid to promote covid-19 like crisis-driven innovation.

It provides a more comprehensive outlook to measure innovation performance across countries based on 66 new & unique indicators, as opposed to 36 indicators in India Innovation Index 2020.

To compare the performance of States and UTs, it has categorised them into 17 major states, 9 UTs and 10 northeast & hill states.

In the Major State’s category, Karnataka (Score 18.01) has been ranked at first position. It is followed by Telangana and Haryana. Chhattisgarh has been ranked last with a score of 10.97.

Among North-Eastern & Hilly States, Manipur (19.37) was ranked as best performer. Uttarakhand and Meghalaya have been ranked at second and third. Nagaland (Score 11) ranked at last position.

Among Union Territories and City-States, Chandigarh (Score 27.88) has been ranked as top performer, which is followed by Delhi (Score 27.00). Ladakh remained at the bottom with a score of 5.91.

Thus, the India Innovation Index 2021 provides state-wise rankings on the basis of innovation landscape and performance of states and union territories in India.


Henley Passport Index 2022 was recently published by immigration consultancy Henley & partners. In the index, India has been ranked at 87th position, among 199 world’s most powerful passports in 2022.

Ranking was based on the number of destinations the passport holders could access without prior visa.

Performance of the countries in index:

Among the 199 countries, Japan was ranked first. It is followed by Singapore and South Korea. Japan’s passport provides entry to 193 countries without a prior visa. On the other hand, Singapore and South Korea allow hassle-free entry to 192 countries.

Top 10 countries in World’s most powerful passports list include-Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Germany, Spain, Finland, Italy, Luxemburg, Austria and Denmark (in the order).

Bangladesh is at 104th position. Pakistan has the fourth worst passport worldwide, with access to 32 destinations.

The ranking was given to countries on the basis of data from the International Air Transport Association. It maintains the largest database of travel information in the world.




China launched the second of the three modules needed to complete its new space station. This was the most recent development in Beijing’s ambitious space programme.

A Long March 5B rocket launched the unmanned spaceship with the call sign Wentian from the Wenchang launch facility on China’s tropical island of Hainan. A representative from the China Manned Space Agency (CMSA) confirmed the launch’s “success.”

In April 2021, Beijing launched the main module of the Tiangong space station, which is Chinese for “heavenly palace.”

It will join with the current module in space, a difficult procedure that will call for the utilisation of a robotic arm and multiple high-precision manipulations.

China’s Space Mission:

The country’s preparations for its widely publicised “space dream” have been intensified under Chinese President Xi Jinping. China has made significant progress in catching up to the United States and Russia, countries having astronauts and cosmonauts who have extensive space exploration expertise.


Russia is all set to exit the International Space Station after 2024. Russia took this decision after escalation of tensions between Russia and the West due to Russian military intervention in Ukraine and sanctions against Russia.

Russia and the United States have been working side by side on the International Space Station since 1998, when it was deployed.

Space exploration was among few areas where cooperation between the United States and Russia and other allies was not affected due to tensions over Ukraine. Russia is likely to focus on building its own space station.

The International Space Station;

is jointly run by space agencies of US, Russia, Japan, Canada and Europe. It was first placed in orbit in 1998.




Recently, Researchers unravelled why some areas of glaciers in the Karakoram Range are going against the worldwide trend of glacial melt due to climate change.

Even in the Himalayas, glaciers are losing mass. Researchers linked this phenomenon to “resurgence of western disturbances (WDs)”.

The phenomenon of Karakoram not losing glacier mass is known as Karakoram Anomaly”.

What is the issue?

In India, Himalayan glaciers are very significant, specifically for people living downstream. They depend on perennial rivers for daily water needs. However, due to global warming and climate change, the water bodies are rapidly disappearing. On the other hand, glaciers in central Karakoram have remained the same.

In fact, they have risen slightly in the past few decades. This phenomenon is restricted to a relatively small area. Apart from the Karakoram range, similar or comparable phenomena can be witnessed from Kunlun ranges.


The Airports Council International (ACI) World has released the annual World Airport Traffic Dataset to reveal the global air traffic rankings of the top 20 aviation industries for the full year 2021.

The World Airport Traffic Dataset is the industry’s most comprehensive airport statistics dataset featuring airport traffic for over 2,600 airports in more than 180 countries and territories.

Important Points of the report:

Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport (ATL) has topped the 2021 Ranking with 7.6 crore passengers in terms of passenger footfall in the year 2021.

From India, the Indira Gandhi International (IGI) Airport in New Delhi has been ranked among the top 20, as the 13th busiest airport. IGIA witnessed 3.7 crore passenger footfall in 2021, which is 30.3% more than 2.8 crore in 2020 when IGI was ranked 16th.


Three wetlands from Tamil Nadu and One each from Mizoram & Madhya Pradesh have been identified under the Ramsar Convention, which is also called the “Convention on Wetlands”.

Thus, India has added five new Ramsar Wetlands Sites of international importance. With the latest addition, the total number of Ramsar Sites in India has reached 54, as opposed to 49 earlier.

New Ramsar Sites include;

Pallikaranai Marsh Reserve Forest, Tamil Nadu: It is a freshwater marsh in Chennai. It is the only surviving wetland ecosystem in Chennai. It is counted among the last remaining natural wetlands of South India.

Karikili Bird Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu: It is a 61.21-hectare protected area located in Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu. It is located at a distance of 75 km from Chennai.

Pichavaram Mangrove, Tamil Nadu: It is located near Chidambaram in Cuddalore District of Tamil Nadu. It covers an area of 1100 hectares and is counted among the largest mangrove forests in the country.

Pala wetland, Mizoram: It is the largest natural wetland in Mizoram. The wetland is surrounded by green woodlands. It is known for its rich diversity of animal species including several species of animals and birds.

Sakhya Sagar, Madhya Pradesh: This Lake is an integral part of Madhav National Park in Shivpuri, Madhya Pradesh.


HCL Technologies’ Chairperson, Roshni Nadar Malhotra has retained her position as the richest woman in India, for the second year in a row according to the third edition of ‘Kotak Private Banking Hurun – Leading Wealthy Women List’.

The total net worth of Roshni Nadar stood at Rs 84,330 crore. Roshni Nadar was followed by Nykaa-owner Falguni Nayar, overtaking Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw of Biocon, with a total wealth of Rs 57,520 crore. Falguni Nayar is the world’s tenth richest self-made woman.

The report highlighted that 25 new faces have made it to the list. The other key highlights of the report include that the average wealth of women in 2021 went up to Rs 4,170 crore as against Rs 2,725 crore in the last edition of the list.


The UN General Assembly (UNGA) recently passed a resolution that recognises the Healthy Environment as Human Right. India has voted in favour of this resolution.

As per the resolution, the right to a clean, healthy and sustainable environment has become a human right.

The UN General Assembly passed the resolution on July 28, 2022. Out of 193-members, 161 members voted in favour. Belarus, China, Cambodia, Russia, Syria, Ethiopia, Iran and Kyrgyzstan were absent to vote.
India has voted in favour. However, it is concerned regarding the procedure and of the resolution.


World Day Against Trafficking is observed annually on 30 July to make people aware of who is being trafficked.

The day aims to educate people that trafficking in persons are considered to be a crime, including the exploitation of women and children for tragic jobs of forced labour and sex.

Every year across the globe, this trafficking, this exploitation of more than 25 million victims by sexual exploitation or forced labour, generates more than $150 billion in criminal revenue.

It represents a comprehensive security issue, fuelling corruption, irregular migration and terrorism.

World Day Against Trafficking in Persons 2022: Theme

This year’s theme “Use and abuse of technology” focuses on the role of technology as a tool that can both enable and impede human trafficking.


Savitri Jindal, the Chairperson Emeritus of OP Jindal Group, has surpassed China’s Yang Huiyan to become Asia’s richest woman, as per the real-time Bloomberg Billionaires Index.

The 72-year-old Savitri Jindal who also holds the position of the richest woman in India has a total fortune of $11.3 billion.

Jindal’s net worth has fluctuated wildly in recent years. It fell to $3.2 billion in April 2020 at the start of the Covid-19 pandemic, then to $15.6 billion in April 2022 due to a rise in commodity prices following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.

The fortune of Yang Huiyan, owner of China’s largest real estate developer ‘Country Garden Holdings’, dropped by more than half in 2022, from $ 24 billion to $11 billion. She had been Asia’s richest woman for the past five years.

Jindal, 72, is India’s richest woman and the 10th-richest person in the country. She became the chairwoman of the Jindal Group shortly after her husband died in a helicopter crash in 2005.



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