It gives us great pleasure to release the monthly edition of the PRAVAHINI – Monthly e- Compendium & Weekly e-Periodicals of Current Affairs. The magazine’s members have shown considerable cooperation as well as devotion. We at successmantra.in work tirelessly to create this magazine and bring it to you with a great sense of gratitude.
The PRAVAHINI November-2022 eBook covers the current events that happened in the month of October. Current Affairs is a crucial component of any competitive exams including CLAT, AILET, DU-LLB, HM, CAT, IAS, PCS, SSC, CUET, Banking, MBA and various other competitive examinations.
Current Affairs play a bigger role in many competitive and government exams. It holds the power of making or breaking your chance of success. Therefore, the candidates should cover the Current Affairs thoroughly and smartly.
The PRAVAHINI November-2022 eBook is divided into different sections keeping in mind the need of various exams. The sections covered namely International, National, Economy, Ecology and Environment, Science & Technology, Legal Affairs, Sports, States News Makers and few others.
We would also be pleased to receive any suggestion that could assist us with the upcoming editions.
Success Mantra (GTB Nagar, Delhi) Website: www.successmantra.in Mail Id: [email protected]
SUPREME COURT UPHOLDS EWS QUOTA
- Recently, the Supreme Court has upheld the validity of the 103rd Constitutional Amendment which provides 10% reservation for the Economically Weaker Sections (EWS) among forward castes in government jobs and colleges across India.
What is the Verdict?
- The 103rd constitutional amendment cannot be said to breach the basic structure of the Constitution. The EWS quota does not violate equality and the basic structure of the constitution. Reservation in addition to existing reservation does not violate provisions of the Constitution.
- The reservation is an instrument of affirmative action by the state for the inclusion of backward classes. Basic structure can’t be breached by enabling the state to make provisions for education.
- The 50% rule formed by the Supreme Court in the Indira Sawhney judgment in 1992 was “not inflexible”. Further, it had applied only to SC/ST/SEBC/OBC communities and not the general category.
- Minority View:
- Reservations were designed as a powerful tool to enable equal access. Introduction of economic criteria and excluding SC (Scheduled Castes), ST( Scheduled Tribe), OBC (Other Backward Classes), saying they had these pre-existing benefits is injustice.
- The EWS quota may have a reparative mechanism to have a level playing field and the exclusion of SC, ST, OBC discriminates against equality code and violates basic structure.
SUPREME COURT BAN ON 'TWO FINGER TEST'
- The Supreme Court on 31 October reiterated the ban on the “two-finger test” in rape cases, warning that persons using such tests will be deemed guilty of misconduct.
- Observing that the test was based on a patriarchal mindset that assumed that sexually active women could not be raped, the bench of Justices DY Chandrachud and Hima Kohli regretted that such a method of examination was being used even today.
What Is the Two-Finger Test:
- A “per vaginal” or two-finger test is an explicitly intrusive physical examination wherein a doctor inserts two fingers inside the vagina of a rape survivor to check if the hymen is intact or not.
- It examines the laxity of vaginal muscles in order to determine if the woman has engaged in or has been subjected to sexual intercourse – a proof of virginity. In some cases, it is done by inspecting the size of a vaginal opening and for tears in the hymen.
Erstwhile Judgment Of SC:
- In May 2013, the Supreme Court had banned the two-finger test on rape victims on the grounds that it violates their right to privacy. The court had asked the government to provide better medical procedures in order to confirm sexual assault.
- In 2018, United Nations (UN) Human Rights, UN Women, and the World Health Organization (WHO) had called for a ban on two-finger test in order to eliminate violence against women.
- They declared it a “medically unnecessary, oftentimes painful, humiliating and traumatic practice that must end.”
INDIA'S EVOLVING CARBON MARKET
- The Ministry for Power, New & Renewable Energy is taking steps to establish a Carbon Credit Market to help the country meet its Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC).
- A carbon credit (also known as carbon offset) is a credit for greenhouse emissions reduced or removed from the atmosphere by an emission reduction project, which can be used by governments, industry, or private individuals to compensate for the emissions they generate elsewhere.
- Those that cannot easily reduce emissions can still operate, at a higher financial cost.
- Carbon credits are based on the "cap-and-trade" model that was used to reduce sulfur pollution in the 1990s.
- One carbon credit is equal to one metric ton of carbon dioxide, or in some markets, carbon dioxide equivalent gasses (CO2-eq).
- Negotiators at the Glasgow COP26 climate change summit in November 2021 agreed to create a global carbon credit offset trading market.
PM MODI INAUGURATED INVEST KARNATAKA 2022
- The Invest Karnataka 2022 summit was inaugurated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi recently.
What is Invest Karnataka 2022?
- The Invest Karnataka 2022 summit is a global investment summit that is organized in Bengaluru to attract foreign investments and create a development plan for the next decade.
- The three-day summit commenced on November 2 this year. During the event, the state will be able to showcase its cultural and investment prospects to countries across the globe. It is held based on the theme “Build for the World”.
- This theme reflects Karnataka Government’s aim to reap the benefit of the global supply chain.
GRANTING CITIZENSHIP TO MINORITIES OF OTHER NATIONS
- The Union Home Ministry recently notified an order granting citizenship to religious minorities in Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Pakistan residing in Anand and Mehsana districts in Gujarat.
- The Ministry of Home Affairs’ notification grants citizenship to Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Parsis and Christians from Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Pakistan living in Anand and Mehsana districts in Gujarat.
- This order empowers district collectors to grant citizenship to these minorities under Citizenship Act, 1955.
- In 2016 and 2018, the district collectors of Ahmedabad, Gandhinagar and Kutch were given the power to grant citizenship to minorities from Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Pakistan.
INDIA'S BIGGEST HYPERSCALE DATA CENTRE
- Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath recently inaugurated Yotta D1 – India’s second and North India’s first hyper-scale data center – in Greater Noida.
What is Yotta D1?
- Yotta D1 is the first of the 6 data center buildings currently being built in the Greater Noida data center park. The first data center was operationalized in just 20 months with an investment of around Rs.1,500 crore.
- The hyperscale data center was developed by Yotta Infrastructure – an arm of the Hiranandani Group. It is situated at a strategic location close to important business hubs of India’s National Capital Region. This provides a major boost for the region’s digital economy.
INDIA INFRA. PROJECT DEVELOPMENT FUND SCHEME
- India Infrastructure Project Development Fund Scheme (IIPDF) was notified by the Indian Government on November 3, 2022.
- The India Infrastructure Project Development Fund Scheme (IIPDF) was launched by the Department of Economic Affairs (DEA).
- This central sector scheme extends financial aid required for the development expenses of Public Private Partnership (PPP) projects.
- It provides funding for project sponsoring authorities (both in the central and state governments) to access services provided by Transaction Advisors (TAs) and consultants involved in the development of the PPP projects.
WHAT IS LAW COMMISSION OF INDIA?
- Retired High Court Chief Justice Rituraj Awasthi has been appointed as the chairperson of the 22nd law commission of India which was constituted in 2020.
What is the Law Commission of India?
- The Law Commission of India is a non-statutory body constituted by the Government of India from time to time.
- The first Law Commission of independent India was established in 1955 for a three-year term. The first Law Commission was established during the British Raj era in 1834 by the Charter Act of 1833 and was chaired by Lord Macaulay.
- It works as an advisory body to the Ministry of Law and Justice. The Law Commission undertakes research in law and review of existing laws in India for making reforms therein and enacting new legislations on a reference made to it by the Central Government or suo-motu.
NATIONAL POPULATION REGISTER (NPR)
- The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) has recently highlighted the need to update the National Population Register (NPR) database across the country.
- This is to incorporate the changes due to birth, death, and migration for which demographic and other particulars of each family and individual are to be collected.
What is NPR?
- NPR is a database containing a list of all usual residents of the country. A usual resident for the purposes of NPR is a person who has resided in a place for six months or more and intends to reside there for another six months or more.
- Its objective is to have a comprehensive identity database of people residing in the country. It is generated through house-to-house enumeration during the “house-listing” phase of the Census.
- The NPR was first collected in 2010 and then updated in 2015.
- Legal Backing: The NPR is prepared under the provisions of the Citizenship Act 1955 and the Citizenship (Registration of Citizens and Issue of National Identity Cards) Rules, 2003.
- It is mandatory for every “usual resident of India” to register in the NPR.
NPR and NRC:
- According to Citizenship Rules 2003, NPR is the first step towards compilation of a National Register of Citizens (NRC). After a list of residents is created (i.e., NPR), a nationwide NRC could go about verifying the citizens from that list.
- However, unlike the NRC, the NPR is not a citizenship enumeration drive as it records even a foreigner staying in a locality for more than six months.
NATIONAL BIO ENERGY PROGRAMME
- The Ministry of New & Renewable Energy announced recently that the National Bio Energy Programme will be implemented until 2025-26.
- The National Bioenergy Programme aims to promote bioenergy usage and create an investor-friendly ecosystem based on the circular economy.
- Bioenergy is derived from once-living organic materials called biomass that are used for producing transportation fuels, heat, electricity and other such products.
- The National Bioenergy Programme will be implemented in 2 phases. The first phase of the programme was approved by the Indian Government with a total budget of Rs.858 crore.
DY CHANDRACHUD TOOK OATH AS 50TH CJI OF INDIA
- Senior-most Supreme Court judge and Chief Justice of India-designate Dhananjaya Y Chandrachud is all set to become the 50th head of the Indian judiciary when President Draupadi Murmu would administer the oath of office to him at Rashtrapati Bhawan.
- He has been part of several Constitution benches and landmark verdicts of the top court including on matters relating to the Ayodhya land dispute, the right to privacy and adultery.
- Justice Chandrachud was also part of the benches which delivered path-breaking judgements on decriminalising same-sex relations after it partially struck down Section 377 of the IPC, the validity of the Aadhaar scheme and the Sabarimala issue.
- Recently, a bench headed by him expanded the scope of the Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) Act and the corresponding rules to include unmarried women for abortion between 20-24 weeks of pregnancy.
CAUVERY SOUTH WILDLIFE SANCTUARY
- The Cauvery South Wildlife Sanctuary was notified recently by the state government of Tamil Nadu. The state government had earlier notified Kochuveli Bird Sanctuary, Nanjarayan Bird Sanctuary, Kadavur Slender Loris Sanctuary and Dugong Conservation Reserve.
About the Cauvery South Wildlife Sanctuary
- An area in the reserve forests of Krishnagiri and Dharmapuri have been notified as the Cauvery South Wildlife Sanctuary.
- The declaration was made under the Section 26A (1) (b) of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972. This will be the 17th wildlife sanctuary in Tamil Nadu.
- The newly notified wildlife sanctuary spans an area of 686.406 sq. km. It is home to 35 mammal species and 238 bird species. It hosts Leith’s softshell turtles, smooth coated otters, marsh crocodile and four horned antelopes.
REPORT OF EXPERT COMMITTEE ON SVAMITVA SCHEME
- Report of the Expert Committee on SVAMITVA Scheme was released at the National Conference on SVAMITVA Scheme and Rural Planning, which was organized on November 3, 2022 in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh.
- The Expert Committee chaired by former secretary of India B. K. Agarwal was formed in February 2022.
The committee aims to:
- Promote transparency in the implementation of SVAMITVA scheme
- Promote adoption of record of land rights to increase formal credit access
- Develop linkages between various departments for informed decision-making related to property tax assessment and collection
What is the SVAMITVA scheme?
- SVAMITVA is an acronym for Survey of Villages and Mapping with Improvised Technology in Village Areas. Implemented by the Ministry of Panchayati Raj (MoPR), it is a central sector scheme launched on the occasion of National Panchayati Raj Day (April 24) in 2021.
- It aims to provide an integrated property validation solution in rural India so that “clear ownership” is established for properties in rural regions. It provides the “record of rights” to village household owners by providing Property Cards.
WHAT IS BLACK SEA GRAIN INITIATIVE?
- Russia recently pulled out of the Black Sea Grain Deal, which was launched to mitigate food inflation caused by conflict in Ukraine.
- The Black Sea Grain Initiative was an agreement between Russia and Ukraine with Turkey and the United Nations. It sought to create a safe passage of food grains exported from Ukraine, which is currently in war with Russia.
- Under this agreement, export of grain, food and fertilizers will be allowed to resume from Ukraine via a “safe maritime humanitarian corridor” from three key Ukrainian ports i.e., Chornomorsk, Odessa, and Yuzhny/Pivdennyi.
- A Joint Coordination Centre (JCC) having representatives from signatories of the Black Sea Grain Initiative was set up to implement this deal.
INDIA & US MILITARY CONDUCTED 'YUDH ABHYAS'
- Indian and US militaries to conduct the battalion-level “Yudh Abhyas” exercise between 15th November 2022 to 2nd December 2022.
- The Yudh Abhyas will be held at Auli in Uttarakhand which is just 100 km from the Line of Actual Control (LAC). The member countries of the “Quad” will conduct the Malabar exercise off Yokosuka in Japan between 8th November 2022 to 18th November 2022.
- The “Quad” member countries include India, Australia, Japan, and the US. The Quad has declared that it would “deter” any “coercion” in the Indo-Pacific. “Yudh Abhyas” will include high-altitude warfare drills.
GHANA ASSUMES PRESIDENCY OF UNSC
- West African country, Ghana assumes the rotating monthly Presidency of the United Nations Security Council.
- During the month of November 2022, Ghana shall preside over the meetings of the Council (adoptions, debates and consultations) and, under its authority, shall represent the Security Council in its capacity as an organ of the United Nations.
- In its capacity as President of the UN Security Council, Ghana is focusing on enhancing Global Peace and Security for Sustainable and Inclusive Development, particularly on the continent of Africa.
- Ghana rejoined the UN Security Council on January 1, 2022. It is the third time Ghana is holding a nonpermanent seat on the Council.
- Ghana was first given the opportunity to serve on the council from 1962 to 1963, and was back for the period of January 2006 – December 2007.
BENJAMIN NETANYAHU AGAIN RETURNS TO POWER
- Former Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu sealed his return to power, as the final vote count from elections this week gave him and his far-right allies a clear majority in parliament.
The Current Scenario:
- Combined with 18 for two ultra-Orthodox Jewish parties and 14 for the rising extreme-right alliance called Religious Zionism gave the bloc supporting Netanyahu 64 seats.
- The parties backing centrist caretaker Prime Minister Yair Lapid won 51 seats, a definitive win for Netanyahu that spells an end to Israel’s unprecedented era of political deadlock, which forced five elections in less than four years.
The Most Far Right Govt:
- The result sets Netanyahu up to form what may be the most right-wing government in Israeli history.
WHAT IS LOSS & DAMAGE FINANCE?
- For the first time in the history of the UN’s climate negotiations, loss and damage funding became part of the official agenda for the COP27 that is being held at Sharm-El-Sheikh in Egypt. Other key additions to the agenda include “matters related to the least developed countries” and “long-term finance”.
- Loss and damage finance is a proposed mechanism that provides financial aid to areas and communities that are already severely affected by climate change. This mechanism has been demanded for a long time by developing and vulnerable communities, including India.
- However, developed countries have opposed it due to the fear of being pushed into providing the majority of the funding.
What is India’s agenda for COP27?
- Climate finance and the clarity regarding its definition so that developing countries are able to accurately assess the extent of the financial flows for climate action.
- India and other developing countries will push for the rich countries to agree to a new global finance target known as the new collective quantified goal on climate finance (NCQG).
MIDDLE EAST GREEN INITIATIVE
- Saudi Arabia recently committed 2.5 billion USD to the Middle East Green Initiative.
- The Middle East Green Initiative is a first-of-its-kind regional alliance that was launched by Saudi Arabia’s Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman in 2021 to curb greenhouse gas emissions from the Middle East.
- It has a clearly defined strategy for regional climate action, ensuring a coordinated and localized response to climate change that is affecting the region.
- It aims to reduce carbon emissions in the region by more than 60 per cent – more than 670 million tons of carbon equivalent.
- This plan includes increasing green cover by planting over 50 billion trees across the Middle East and restoring 200 million hectares of degraded land. It also seeks to increase the green land and marine reserves to 30 percent of the total national area. The initiative will reduce the global carbon levels by 2.5 per cent.
- About MGI Summit: The MGI Summit is a regional dialogue on climate that brings together countries from the Middle East and North Africa.
INDIA JOINED MANGROVE ALLIANCE FOR CLIMATE
- Calling for integration of mangroves conservation with the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) programmes for carbon sequestering, India joined the Mangrove Alliance for Climate (MAC).
What is Mangrove Alliance for Climate (MAC):
- The Mangrove Alliance for Climate (MAC) is an intergovernmental alliance that seeks to expand and hasten the progress towards the conservation and restoration of mangrove ecosystems. Its members include the UAE, Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka, Australia, Japan, and Spain.
MAC & India:
- India is among the first five countries to join the MAC, at the 27th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP27) at Sharm el-Sheikh in Egypt. The others are Australia, Japan, Spain, and Sri Lanka.
- The move is in line with India’s Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) to create an additional carbon sink of 2.5- 3 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent, through additional forest and tree cover by 2030.
WHAT IS GLOBAL CARBON BUDGET 2022?
- The Global Carbon Budget 2022 report was released on November 11, 2022. The report was released by the Global Carbon Project – a group of scientists who track carbon emitted by human activities.
What are the key findings of the Global Carbon Budget, 2022?
- The global carbon emissions are expected to reach 40.6 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere in 2022.
- This projection is close to the highest-ever annual total of 40.9 billion tonnes of CO2 emitted in 2019. There is no sign of carbon emission decline required for limiting global warming to 1.5 degree Celsius.
- In 2021, China (31 per cent), the United States (14 per cent) and the European Union (8 per cent) are the major contributors of global carbon emissions. India accounted for 7 per cent of the global carbon emissions.
F26TH INTERNATIONAL MALABAR NAVAL EXERCISE
- India is participating in 26th International Malabar Naval Exercise begins in Yokosuka of Japan. In the Malabar Naval Exercise, Australia, Japan and the USA are also participating.
- The naval forces of these countries will take part in the exercise till the 18th of next month. Indian Naval Ships Shivalik and Kamorta are ready to demonstrate at the event.
- The presence of these indigenously built ships of the Indian Navy at these multi-national events will be an opportunity to showcase the ship-building capabilities of Indian Shipyards.
- The MALABAR exercise was initiated in 1992 between the navies of India and the United States.
- The International Fleet Review will be reviewed by Japanese Prime Minister Fumio Kishida and will see the participation of 40 ships and submarines from 13 countries.
- The warships will also be deployed in the four-nation Malabar exercise scheduled to take place on 8th November. It started as a bilateral drill between the Indian Navy and the US Navy in the Indian Ocean. Japan became a permanent member of the exercise in 2015.
WHAT IS DIGITAL RUPEE?
- The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) will commence pilot launches of the digital rupee from November 1. It has identified nine banks for participation in the pilot launch.
- They are the State Bank of India, Bank of Baroda, Union Bank of India, HDFC Bank, ICICI Bank, Kotak Mahindra Bank, Yes Bank, IDFC First Bank, and HSBC.
What Is Digital Rupee:
- A Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC) or Digital Rupee is a digital form of currency notes issued by a central bank.
- Digital currency or rupee is an electronic form of money that can be used in contactless transactions.
- Presenting Union Budget 2022, Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman announced that the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) would be rolling out its digital currency soon.
- Retail (CBDC-R): Retail CBDC would be potentially available for use by all,
- Wholesale (CBDC-W) is designed for restricted access to select financial institutions.
FINAL SOVEREIGN GREEN BONDS FRAMEWORK OF INDIA
- Recently, the Union Minister for Finance & Corporate Affairs has approved the final Sovereign Green Bonds Framework of India.
- Sovereign Green Bonds will be issued for mobilizing resources for green projects.
What is Sovereign Green Bonds Framework?
- The Framework comes close on the footsteps of India’s commitments under “Panchamrit” as elucidated by the Prime Minister at Conference of Parties (COP) 26 at Glasgow in November 2021.
- It will further strengthen India’s commitment towards its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDCs) targets, adopted under the Paris Agreement.
- Green Finance Working Committee (GFWC) was constituted to validate key decisions on issuance of Sovereign Green Bonds.
INDIA TO BECOME WORLD'S THIRD LARGEST ECONOMY
- India is on track to become the world’s third largest economy by 2027, surpassing Japan and Germany, and have the third largest stock market by 2030, thanks to global trends and key investments the country has made in technology and energy, says Morgan Stanley.
- “We believe India is set to surpass Japan and Germany to become the world’s third-largest economy by 2027 and will have the third-largest stock market by the end of this decade.
- “Consequently, India is gaining power in the world order, and in our opinion these idiosyncratic changes imply a once-in-a-generation shift and an opportunity for investors and companies.”
About The Economic Prospects:
- All told, India’s GDP could more than double from $3.5 trillion today to surpass $7.5 trillion by 2031. Its share of global exports could also double over that period, while the Bombay Stock Exchange could deliver 11% annual growth, reaching a market capitalization of $10 trillion in the coming decade.
INDIAN GOVERNMENT'S SELF RELIANT INDIA (SRI)
- The Indian Government’s Self Reliant India (SRI) Fund committed Rs.5,000 crore in a year.
- Self Reliant India (SRI) Fund is Rs.10,000 crore fund launched by the Indian Government.
- It is a SEBI-registered category-II Alternative Investment Fund (AIF) that was launched by the Indian Government to provide growth capital to MSME Sector.
- It operates via the mother-fund and daughter-fund (Fund of Funds) structure. The mother fund is the SEBI fund that invests up to 20 per cent of the overall corpus.
- The daughter fund (mostly venture capital and private equity funds) raises the rest 80 per cent of the capital from outside sources. The investment by this fund will get leveraged fivefold, making the total value of the investment capital to MSMEs to Rs.50,000 crore.
INDIA'S 1ST GREEN BOND FRAMEWORK?
- The Central Government recently released the framework for the proposed sovereign Green Bond.
- Green bonds are financial instruments that generate proceeds for the investments in environmentally-suitable and climate friendly projects. These instruments have lower capital cost than regular bonds.
- The Indian Government announced at the Union Budget 2022-23 that it will issue its maiden sovereign green bonds in the present financial year.
What is the Green Finance Working Committee?
- The Indian Government had set up a Green Finance Working Committee headed by the Chief Economic Adviser to select eligible projects for financing via green bonds.
- This does not include large hydropower plants. The committee will meet at least two times a year. It has members from relevant line ministries, the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change, NITI Aayog, and the Budget Division of the finance ministry’s Department of Economics and others.
KV KAMATH AS INDEPENDENT DIRECTOR OF RIL
- Reliance Industries has appointed K V Kamath as the Independent Director of the company for a period of five years.
- The Board of Directors has, at its meeting held, based on the recommendation of the human resources, nomination and remuneration committee considered and recommended to the shareholders for approval the appointment of Shri K. V. Kamath.
- KV Kamath has also been appointed as an Independent Director and non-executive Chairman for Reliance Strategic Investment Limited (RSIL).
- About K V Kamath: Currently the Chairman of the National Bank for Financing Infrastructure and Development (NaBFID), Kamath has served as Chairman of Infosys.
- In 2015 he was appointed as the first President of the New Development Bank set up by the BRICS countries from where he retired in 2020.
IMPORTANT DATES & DAYS
BHARATIYA BHASHA DIWAS TO BE CELEBRATED ON 11TH DEC.
- The University Grants Commission has written to vice-chancellors and principals of all universities and colleges in this regard following recommendations of a committee constituted last year by the education ministry to promote Indian languages.
- All higher education institutions in India must observe a ‘Bharatiya Bhasha Divas’ on December 11 every year to create “language harmony” and develop a conducive environment for learning Indian languages.
- The commission also shared a concept note of the proposal with the universities, according to which universities and colleges will organize competitions, games, exhibitions and other activities to mark the day.
- The central government has been making efforts to promote Indian languages. It is soon going to establish 22 bhasha kendras (language centers) to promote Indian languages as enshrined in the eighth schedule of the Constitution.
7 STATES & 2 UTs CELEBRATES THEIR FORMATION DAY
- On November 1st, seven of the 28 Indian states and two Union Territories observed their formation day.
- The states of Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh and Punjab besides the Union Territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry were formed on this day, though in different years. Besides 28 states, India has eight Union Territories.
- While Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh came into being in 1956, Punjab and Haryana were carved out as separate states in 1966 while Chhattisgarh was granted statehood in 2002.
- It was the first time in 1956 that several states were formed on linguistic grounds under the State Reorganisation Act. All these states and the Union Territory of Puducherry celebrate their formation days in November.
WORLD CITIES DAY CELEBRATED ON 31ST OCTOBER
- World Cities Day is observed on Oct. 31 to promote international cooperation in the promotion of global urbanization and address related challenges.
- The theme for World Cities Day has been the same since the inception. It is “Better City, Better Life”. However, the sub-theme for the day differs each year.
- The sub-theme for 2022 is “Act Local to Go Global”. It highlights the importance of local actions in achieving the mission of the Sustainable Development Goal 11, which is “Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable”.
- The sub-theme calls for strengthening local and regional governments to make cities greener and more equitable.
Which is the host city for this year?
- Each year, World Cities Day is hosted by different cities across the world. The 2022 edition was hosted by Shanghai in China.
VIGILANCE AWARENESS WEEK 2022
- The Vigilance Awareness Week 2022 is being observed between October 31 to November 6 this year.
- The Vigilance Awareness Week is a week-long observation, under the Central Vigilance Commission. It aims to raise public awareness of the dangers of corruption.
- It is observed every year, in the week in which India celebrates the Ekta Diwas i.e. the birth anniversary of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel (October 31).
- The 2022 event is being observed on the theme of ‘Corruption Free India for a Developed Nation’.
NATIONAL CANCER AWARENESS DAY 2022
- National Cancer Awareness Day 2022 is celebrated every year on 7th November in India. This day is important because it educates people about the serious risk of cancer.
- According to the World Health Organization (WHO), cancer is the second most deadly disease that causes death among people.
- According to the World Health Organization (WHO), cancer is the second most deadly disease that causes death among people.
National Cancer Awareness Day 2022: History
- Union Health Minister Dr Harsh Vardhan first announced National Cancer Awareness Day in September 2014. He started a state-level movement on cancer control and encouraged people to report to municipal clinics for a free screening. A booklet talking about the early signs of cancer and how to avoid it was also distributed.
- A significant step in the country against this deadly disease started in 1975 with the launch of the National Cancer Control Program which was started to facilitate cancer treatment in the nation. 10 years later, in 1984–85, the plan’s approach was revised to focus on early cancer detection and prevention.
INTERNATIONAL WEEK OF SCIENCE & PEACE
- November 9 to November 14 is observed as the International Week of Science and Peace every year around the globe.
- This week is an initiative taken by the United Nations (UN), hoping to make people contribute towards the encouragement and promotion of peace across the globe.
- The main goal behind this week’s celebration is to contribute towards technology development and promote peace.
- The annual observance of the International Week of Science and Peace is making an important contribution to the promotion of peace.
NATIONAL LEGAL SERVICES DAY: 9TH NOVEMBER
- National Legal Services Day is marked every year on 9th November to celebrate the commencement of the Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987 which came into force on this very day in 1995.
- This day was established with a mandate to offer support and help to weaker sections of society including Scheduled Tribes, Scheduled Castes, women, disabled persons, natural calamities victims, and human trafficking victims.
- National Legal Services Day is crucial in raising public knowledge about various provisions of the Legal Services Authorities Act as well as litigants’ rights.
- The National Legal Services Authority (NALSA) was established in 1995 by the Legal Services Authorities Act of
- It is an act of the Parliament of India for enforcing the provisions of Article 39 A of the Constitution. The authority carried out operations such as providing free legal aid and guidance to the needy and resolving issues through mediation and amicable settlement.
REPORTS AND INDEXES
PERFORMANCE GRADING INDEX FOR STATES/UTs
- The Union Education Ministry’s Department of School Education and Literacy released the Performance Grading Index (PGI) for States/UTs for 2020-21.
What is the Performance Grading Index?
- Performance Grading Index (PGI) is a unique index that provides evidence-based comprehensive assessment of the school education system in all states and union territories. It provides insights into the performance and achievements of the school education system across India.
- The PGI structure has 1,000 points across 70 indicators that are divided into two categories – Outcomes and Governance Management. The 2 categories are again divided into five domains:
- Learning Outcomes (LO)
- Access (A)
- Infrastructure and Facilities (IF)
- Equity (E)
- Governance Process (GP)
QS ASIA UNIVERSITY RANKINGS 2023
- QS Asia University Rankings 2023 was released recently by the Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) – a UK-based ranking authority.
About QS Asia University Rankings
- The QS Asia University Rankings is released annually by the Quacquarelli Symonds (QS). It highlights the top universities in the continent of Asia. The rankings are based on 11 indicators.
- These indicators include academic reputation, employer reputation, faculty/student ratio, international research network etc.
- The 2023 ranking is the 15th edition. It featured 757 institutions – an increase from the last year’s 687 institutes. This makes it the largest ever ranking for the region. The institutes in China Mainland (128 institutions), India (118), Japan (106) and South Korea (88) dominate the ranking.
What are the key findings of the QS Asia University Rankings 2023?
- The top performer of the QS Asia University Rankings 2023 is China’s Peking University, with an overall score of 100. It held second position in the 2022 ranking.
- Other top performers are National University of Singapore (97.4) and China-based Tsinghua University (97.3).
- A total of 118 Indian institutes featured in the prestigious ranking. 5 IITs, IISc and Delhi University entered the top 100 in the ranking.
- IIT-Bombay is the top performer in the ranking. Its ranking has risen from 42 to 40. This makes it the best educational institute in Asia.
SCIENCE & TECH.
WHAT IS C-295 AIRCRAFT?
- Recently, the Prime Minister of India has laid the foundation stone for the C-295 transport aircraft manufacturing facility in Vadodara to be set up by Airbus Defence and Space S.A., Spain and Tata Advanced Systems Limited (TASL).
- This is the first time a private sector company would be manufacturing a full aircraft in the country.
What is the C-295 MW transporter?
- The C-295 is a transport aircraft of 5-10 tonne capacity with contemporary technology. Robust and reliable, it is a versatile and efficient tactical transport aircraft which can perform a number of different missions.
- Features: The aircraft, with a flight endurance of up to 11 hours, can carry out multi-role operations under all weather conditions.
SPACEX FALCON HEAVY ROCKET
- On November 1, 2022, SpaceX launched the Falcon Heavy rocket from Kennedy Space Center in Florida to send US military satellites into space.
- Falcon Heavy is a partially reusable heavy-lift launch vehicle developed by the American aerospace manufacturer SpaceX. It is a powerful rocket consisting of 2 strap-on boosters made using Falcon 9 first stages, a center code made from a Falcon 9 first stage and a second stage on the top.
When was the maiden launch of the Falcon Heavy rocket conducted?
- The first-ever launch of the Falcon Heavy Rocket happened on February 6, 2018. This launch vehicle carried a Tesla Roadster belonging to SpaceX founder Elon Musk. The car had a dummy named “Starman” in the driver’s seat.
- The second Falcon Heavy Rocket was launched on April 11, 2019. All the three booster rockets successfully came back to the Earth. Since then, the launch vehicle has been certified for the National Security Space Launch (NSSL) program. This rocket will eventually be superseded by the Starship Launch System, which is currently under development.
WHAT IS MAKE-II PROJECT?
- Recently, the Indian Army has approved five Project Sanction Orders (PSOs) for the development of niche technology by the Indian industry under the Make-II route of defense procurement.
What is the Make-II Project?
- Make II projects are essentially industry funded projects involving design, development and innovative solutions by Indian vendors for development of prototypes.
- 22 out of 43 projects are now in prototype development stage, which is 66% of projects by cost, ₹18,000 crore out of ₹27,000 crore.
New Additions under the Project:
- High Frequency Man Packed Software Defined Radios (HFSDR): These radio sets will replace the existing High Frequency radio sets in the inventory, which have limited data handling capability and obsolete technology.
- Lightweight SDR will provide long distance radio communication through enhanced data capability and band width coupled with enhanced security
- Drone Kill Systems: Drone kill system is a hard kill anti-drone system against low Radio Cross Section drones. It is being developed to function in all types of terrains, both during day and night.
- Infantry Training Weapon Simulator (IWTS): It is the first triservice Make-II project with the Army as the lead service.
ISRO'S SATELLITE 'RISAT-2'
- Recently, the Indian Space Research Organisation’s (ISRO) RISAT (Radar Imaging Satellite)-2 satellite has made an uncontrolled re-entry into the Earth’s atmosphere at the predicted impact point in the Indian Ocean near Jakarta.
- RISAT-2 is India’s first "eye in the sky" which keep surveillance on the country’s borders as part of anti-infiltration and anti-terrorist operations.
What is RISAT-2?
- The principal sensor of Risat-2, considered a ‘spy’ satellite, was an X-band synthetic-aperture radar from Israel Aerospace Industries.
- Risat-2 was built more quickly following the 2008 Mumbai terror attacks due to delay with the indigenously developed C-band for Risat-1 satellite.
PAHARI TRIBES INCLUSION IN THE ST LIST
The National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST) has now cleared the way for the inclusion of the ‘Pahari ethnic group’ in the Scheduled Tribes (ST) list of the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir.
- The commission also called for the inclusion of the “Paddari tribe”, “Koli” and “Gadda Brahman” communities to be included in the ST list of J&K. Currently, Jammu and Kashmir has 12 communities that have been notified as STs.
What is the Process of Inclusion in the ST List?
- The process to include tribes in the ST list begins with the recommendation from the respective State governments, which are then sent to the Tribal Affairs Ministry, which reviews and sends them to the Registrar General of India for approval.
- This is followed by the NCST approval before the list is sent to the Cabinet for a final decision. The final decision rests with the President’s office issuing a notification specifying the changes under powers vested in it from Articles 342.
- The inclusion of any community in the Scheduled Tribes come into effect only after the President assents to a Bill that amends the Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order, 1950, as is appropriate, after it is passed by both the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
MUDUMALAI TIGER RESERVE (MTR)
- The Forest Department is coming up with a comprehensive strategy to deal with the spread of the invasive species like Senna spectabilis which continues to spread rapidly in the buffer zone of the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve (MTR) in Nilgiris hill district.
- Invasive weeds such as Senna spectabilis and Lantana camara, as well as wattle, had taken over vast swathes of the Nilgiris.
- The invasive weed has a negative effect on local biodiversity, crowding out native species and limiting food availability for wildlife.
What are the Key Facts about Mudumalai Tiger Reserve?
- At the tri-junction of three states, namely Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu, it is located in the Nilgiris District of Tamil Nadu. It has a common boundary with Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary (Kerala) on the West, Bandipur Tiger Reserve (Karnataka) on the North, together forming a large conservation landscape for flagship species such as Tiger and Asian Elephant.
- Mudumalai tiger reserve is among the 14 Indian tiger reserves that were awarded the Conservation Assured | Tiger Standards (CA|TS) status for effective management of target species.
AGE OF CONSENT FOR ADOLESCENT
- Recently, Karnataka High Court, while dismissing a case filed under the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012 (POCSO Act), saying the Law Commission of India will have to rethink the age of consent for Adolescents.
- The court said, the aspect of consent by a girl of 16 years, but who is below 18 years, would have to be considered, if it is indeed an offense under the Indian Penal Code and/or the POCSO Act.
What is the POCSO Act, 2012?
- It defines a child as any person below eighteen years of age and regards the best interests and welfare of the child as a matter of paramount importance at every stage, to ensure the healthy physical, emotional, intellectual and social development of the child.
- It defines different forms of sexual abuse, including penetrative and non-penetrative assault, as well as sexual harassment and pornography.
- It deems a sexual assault to be “aggravated” under certain circumstances, such as when the abused child is mentally ill or when the abuse is committed by a person in a position of trust or authority like a family member, police officer, teacher, or doctor.