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SM Current Affairs SEPTEMBER 2021 Set 03, Current Affairs Notes By Success Mantra Coaching Institute GTB Nagar Delhi

SM Current Affairs SEPTEMBER 2021 Set 03

Diksha Sharma 15 MINUTES

PREFACE

It gives us great pleasure to release the monthly edition of the PRAVAHINI - Monthly e-Compendium & Weekly e-Periodicals of Current Affairs. The magazine’s members have shown considerable cooperation as well as devotion. We at successmantra.in work tirelessly to create this magazine and bring it to you with a great sense of gratitude.

The PRAVAHINI September-2021 eBook covers the current events that happened in the month of September. Current Affairs is a crucial component of any competitive exams including CLAT, AILET, DU-LLB, HM, CAT, IAS, PCS, SSC, Banking, MBA and various other competitive examinations.

Current Affairs play the bigger role in many competitive and government exams. It holds the power of making or breaking your chance of success. Therefore, the candidates should cover the Current Affairs thoroughly and smartly.

The PRAVAHINI September-2021 eBook is divided into different sections keeping in mind the need of various exams. The sections covered namely International, National, Economy, Ecology and Environment, Science & Technology, Legal Affairs, Sports, States News Makers and few others.

We would also be pleased to receive any suggestion that could assist us with the upcoming editions.

Success Mantra (GTB Nagar, Delhi)
Website: www.successmantra.in
Mail Id: [email protected]

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. National Affairs
2. International Affairs
3. Economic Affairs
4. Appointments
5. Awards And Honors
6. Important Dates & Sports
7. Reports And Indexes
8. Science & Technology
9. Miscellaneous

NATIONAL AFFAIRS

TWO INDIAN BEACHES AWARDED BLUE FLAG CERTIFICATION

 Two more beaches in India have been awarded 'Blue Flag' certification, an international eco-level tag, taking the total number of such beaches in the country to 10.

 The two beaches to receive the certification this year are Kovalam in Tamil Nadu and Eden in Puducherry.

 Foundation for Environment Education in Denmark (FEE) which accords the globally recognized eco-label - Blue Flag certification, has also given re-certification for eight nominated beaches Shivrajpur- Gujarat, Ghoghla-Diu, Kasarkod and Padubidri-Karnataka, Kappad-Kerala, Rushikonda- Andhra Pradesh, Golden-Odisha and Radhanagar- Andaman and Nicobar, which were awarded the Blue Flag certificate last year.

 These eight beaches got the Blue Flag certification on October 6 last year.

 What is Blue Flag certification: Blue Flag certification is a globally recognised eco-label accorded on the basis of 33 stringent criteria in four major heads which are environmental education and information, bathing water quality, environmental management and conservation and safety and services in the beaches.

 The Blue Flag beach is an eco-tourism model endeavouring to provide the tourists/beachgoers clean and hygienic bathing water, facilities, a safe and healthy environment and sustainable development of the area.

 The recommendations are done by an independent national jury composed of eminent environmentalists and scientists.

PM MODI TO ROLL OUT NATIONAL DIGITAL HEALTH MISSION

 Prime Minister Narendra Modi will announce the nationwide roll-out of the National Digital Health Mission (NDHM), which has been renamed as Pradhan Mantri Digital Health Mission (PM-DHM), on September 27.

 Under this, a unique digital health ID will be provided to the people, which will contain all the health records of the person. The id will be created using details such as Aadhaar and the user’s mobile number.

 About the initiative: The initiative will be rolled out on the final day of Arogya Manthan, which was kicked off to mark the third anniversary of the government’s flagship health insurance scheme — Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana.

 The project is currently in its pilot phase in the Union territories of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, Ladakh, Lakshadweep, and Puducherry.

 The mission essentially consists of four main building blocks — unique digital health id, health care professionals registry, health facility registry and electronic health records.

 To begin with, three components, unique health id, doctor’s registry and the health facility registry, have been made operational, the officials cited above said.

 The initiative supports Universal Health Coverage in an efficient, accessible, inclusive, affordable and safe manner through the provision of a wide range of data, information and infrastructure services.

APEX COURT OF INDIA (SC) LAUNCHED 'FASTER' SYSTEM

 In a big fillip to the fundamental rights of life, dignity and personal liberty, the Supreme Court has introduced a new system by which its crucial decisions, including orders on bail and stay of arrest, can be communicated electronically to prison authorities and investigating agencies through a secure channel.

 Following an order on July 16 by a Special Bench led by Chief Justice of India N.V. Ramana, the apex court has introduced the “Fast and Secured Transmission of Electronic Records” (FASTER) system.

 The system is meant to ensure that undertrials are not made to wait for days on end behind bars to be released because the certified hard copies of their bail orders were late to reach the prison.

 The system would also prevent unnecessary arrests and custody of people even after the court has already granted them its protection. It may even communicate a stay on an execution ordered by the final court on time.

HARDEEP S. PURI LAUNCHED 7TH SWACHH SURVEKSHAN 2022

 Union Housing and Urban Affairs Minister, Hardeep Singh Puri has launched the 7th edition of Swachh Survekshan 2022.

 The seventh edition of the annual cleanliness survey in the urban areas, under which district rankings have been introduced for the first time. The voice of senior citizens and young adults will also be given priority.

 This survey will create a level playing field for smaller cities by introducing 2 population categories:-under 15,000 & btw 15,000-25,000.

 The scope of the survey has been expanded to now cover 100 per cent wards for sampling as compared to 40 per cent in previous years, according to the ministry.

 The Mission is also committed to continuously engage with citizens to improve the quality of public sanitation infrastructure and services.

 To this end, the ‘Sarvajanik Shauchalay Safai Jan Bhagidari Utsav’ will be facilitated to assess the quality of community and public toilets and capture citizen feedback for process improvement in future.

LOK SABHA SPEAKER LAUNCHED NIDHI 2.0 SCHEME

 World Tourism Day is being observed. This day is celebrated every year to foster awareness among the international community on the importance of tourism and its social, cultural, political and economic value.

 The Tourism Ministry will launch NIDHI 2.0 and India Tourism Statistics – At a Glance, 2021 in New Delhi today.

 The Ministry is organizing an event to celebrate World Tourism Day, which has been designated by the United Nations World Tourism Organization as a day to focus on Tourism for Inclusive Growth.

 Lok Sabha Speaker Om Birla and Tourism Minister G. Kishan Reddy will present on the occasion. During the event, a Memorandum of Understanding will also be signed between the Ministry of Tourism, the United Nations Environment Programme and the Responsible Tourism Society of India to actively promote and support sustainability initiatives in the tourism sector of each other.

 India is in the unlocking phase and domestic tourism has re-started slowly and steadily.

 The Covid-19 pandemic has had an immense socio-economic impact worldwide and a gradual increase in domestic tourism will help for recovery and growth in many folds of the society.

 World Tourism Day is being celebrated today with a view to creating awareness regarding its roles on social-cultural, political and economic values globally.

 The day also marked the establishment of the United Nations’ World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) which is the nodal agency assigned for the promotion of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism.

CHARANJIT SINGH CHANNI AS NEW CM OF PUNJAB

 Congress leader Charanjit Singh Channi took oath as the 16th Chief Minister of Punjab at the Raj Bhawan. He was administered the oath of office by Punjab Governor Banwarilal Purohit.

 Two other Congress MLAs, Sukhjinder S Randhawa and OP Soni were sworn in as deputy Chief Ministers of Punjab. Channi is the first Dalit to hold the post of Punjab Chief Minister.

 Charanjit Singh Channi will be the 16th Chief Minister of Punjab. His name was announced for the post on September 19, 2021, India after the resignation of Capt. Amrinder Singh.

 Charanjit Singh Channi is a three-time Congress MLA from Chamkaur Sahib Assembly Constituency.

 He had served as the leader of opposition in the Punjab Legislative Assembly from 2015 to 2016. He was appointed as a cabinet minister in March 2017 in Punjab CM Captain Amarinder Singh's cabinet at the age of 47 years.

INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS

PM MODI ON A 3-DAY VISIT TO UNITED STATES

 Prime Minister Narendra Modi has embarked on a three-day visit to the United States. He is accompanied by a high-level delegation consisting of National Security Advisor Ajit Doval and senior officials including Harsh Vardhan Shringla.

 This is Prime Minister Modi’s first visit abroad beyond the neighbourhood since the Covid-19 pandemic outbreak.

PM Modi, Joe Biden meeting at White House:

 Biden will host PM Modi at the White House on September 24. This is going to be the first in-person meeting between the two leaders after Biden took over as the US President on January 20.

 PM Modi and President Biden are expected to discuss ways to stem radicalisation and combat terrorism. They are also expected to discuss ways to bolster defence, trade ties, security collaborations and clean energy partnerships among others.

 PM Modi and Biden will discuss the current regional security situation following the recent developments in Afghanistan. PM Modi will also hold business interactions during his US visit from September 22-25.

PM Modi will address the UN General Assembly:

 PM Modi will address the General Debate of the High-Level Segment of 76th Session of UN General Assembly (UNGA) on September 25 in New York.

FIRST EVER IN-PERSON QUAD SUMMIT HELD IN US

 The first in-person assembly of the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (Quad) of India, Australia, the United States and Japan, was held in Washington.

 Meeting was participated with the aid of Prime Minister Narendra Modi along with leaders of the US, Japan, and Australia.

 US President Joe Biden is internet hosting all of them at the White House. During the meeting, leaders additionally agreed to preserve a cautious eye on Pakistan, as its ancient rival has been an instigator of trouble in Afghanistan.

 PM Modi shared concerns concerning extremist elements in Afghanistan. India’s Proposal at Quad: During the meeting, PM Modi noted that four nations of the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue came together in the hobby of humanity amid the COVID-19 pandemic.

 He introduced the “Quad vaccine initiative” which will assist Indo-Pacific nations.

 At the summit, he proposed a frequent international touring protocol which entails mutual recognition of COVID-19 vaccination certificate, which was properly received by different leaders.

 India proposed to allow Quad to export eight million Indo-Pacific vaccine doses by means of October 2021 in line with a deal between grouping of Australia, India, Japan and the United States in March 2021.

 Australia’s proposal: Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison cited that, Indo-Pacific should be free from coercion in line with the global regulation and sovereign rights.

PM MODI ADDRESSED 76TH SESSION OF UNGA IN NEW YORK

 Prime Minister Narendra Modi reached New York to address the 76th session of the United Nations General Assembly.

 He is the first world leader scheduled to address the UN General Assembly. PM Modi had last addressed the UN General Assembly in 2019.

 At least 109 heads of state and government will address the UN General Assembly in person at the event in New York while 60 more will address the debate through pre-recorded video statements.

 Many world leaders returned to the UN General Assembly session in New York this week with a focus on fighting Covid-19 pandemic, which forced many to send pre-recorded video statements last year.

 The theme of this year's UN General Assembly session is 'building resilience through hope - to recover from Covid-19, rebuild sustainably, respond to the needs of the planet, respect the rights of people, and revitalise the United Nations'.

 PM spoke on various global issues such as the Covid-19 pandemic, the need to combat terrorism focusing on Afghanistan and Extremism, and the need to strengthen the United Nations.

 Prime Minister Narendra Modi invoked Chanakya, Deen Dayal Upadhyaya, and Rabindranath Tagore in his address.

 The theme for this year’s general debate is building resilience through hope to recover from COVID-19, rebuild sustainability, respond to the needs of the planet, respect the rights of people and revitalise the United Nations.

 Bilateral meetings: Prime Minister’s visit would be bilateral meetings with our close partners Japan and Australia where he will hold several bilateral meetings including with US President Joe Biden and Vice President Kamala Harris.

VLADIMIR PUTIN RETAINS MAJORITY IN RUSSIAN ELECTIONS

 Vladimir Putin's ruling United Russia party has retained its majority in the Russian parliament after a three-day election that was plagued with allegations of poll violations after most of the opposition politicians were barred from running.

 With most of the ballots counted, the Russian Election Commission announced that the United Russia Party had won nearly 50% of the vote, retaining an almost two-thirds majority in the lower house of parliament.

 Though the party retained its majority in the parliament, it lost one-fifth of its support in comparison to the 2016 parliamentary election when it had won over 54 percent of the votes.

 The elections were closely watched as they will be key to the runup to the 2024 presidential election. As per local polls, Putin still remains a popular figure in Russia with many citizens crediting him for standing up to the West and restoring national pride.

 Russian President Vladimir Putin has been in power in Russia as President or Prime Minister since 1999.

 While it is not clear whether he plans to run again in the 2024 presidential elections or choose a successor or outline a different path but a majority in Duma, the Russian Parliament will surely give him and his party an upper hand.

FUMIO KISHIDA TO BECOME JAPAN'S NEW PRIME MINISTER

 Japan's former Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida has won the governing party leadership election and is set to become the next prime minister.

 Kishida replaces outgoing party leader Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga, who is stepping down after serving only one year since taking office last September.

 Kishida previously served as LDP policy chief and was foreign minister between 2012-17, during which he negotiated accords with Russia and South Korea, with whom Japan’s relations are often frosty.

 As new leader of the Liberal Democratic Party, Kishida is certain to be elected the next prime minister on Monday in parliament, where his party and coalition partner control the house. Kishida beat Taro Kono, the vaccinations minister, in a runoff after moving ahead of two female candidates Sanae Takaichi and Seiko Noda in the first round.

PM JUSTIN TRUDEAU WON THIRD TERM IN CANADA'

 Prime Minister Justin Trudeau won a third term in Canada’s snap election but fell short of regaining the majority he was seeking, faced with relying on smaller parties in another fragmented parliament.

 Trudeau’s Liberal Party was elected or leading in 156 of the 338 seats in the House of Commons in Ottawa, little changed from the last vote in 2019.

 The main opposition Conservatives, under Erin O’Toole, were ahead in 122 seats, one more than they won last time.

 For a second straight election, his party lost the popular vote to the Conservatives and won only because of a strong showing in Toronto, Montreal and other cities.

 The results reflect a nation that’s unsure about its immediate future amid a fourth wave of the Covid-19 pandemic.

 Canadians are dealing with growing debt levels and concerned about a future transition from an oil-producing nation to a low-carbon economy. Party leaders struggled to find a coherent message with which to unite the electorate, pollsters said.

CHINA BANNED CRYPTOCURRENCY ACTIVITIES

 The People's Bank of China has announced all Cryptocurrency activities as illegal on 23 September.

 People's Bank of China (PBOC) announced Virtual currency-related business activities as illegal financial ventures.

 Offenders will be "investigated for criminal liability" as per the law. China has banned all the related financial ventures involving cryptocurrencies like selling tokens, trading crypto, and illegal fundraising.

 Cryptocurrency creation and trading have already been illegal in China since 2019. Cryptocurrency is binary data that has been designed to work as a medium of exchange.

SWITZERLAND LEGALIZED SAME-SEX MARRIAGE

 The Voting polls in Switzerland declared the legalization of Same-Sex Marriage On 26 September 2021.

 Law was approved through a vote, in which polls predicted extensive approval for same-sex marriage in the country. The bill change was accepted by 64.1 percent of voters.

 It also received strong support in urban and rural areas. Apart from same-sex marriage, the government also approved an amendment to Switzerlands marriage law, which was also put to voters in a referendum.

 This Law also grants lesbian couples admittance to sperm banks and allows same-sex couples to adopt children. Under the Law, same-sex couples can have a civil wedding.

ECONOMIC AFFAIRS

ADB FORECASTS INDIA'S GDP GROWTH TO 10%

 The Asian Development Bank has cut its forecast for India’s GDP growth in 2021-22 to 10%, from 11% projected earlier, with downside risks dominating the economic outlook.

 The ADB also sees rising input costs fuelling inflation to a faster 5.5% pace, than the 5.2% previously estimated.

 While the COVID-19 second wave has disrupted the economic recovery since the ADB’s April forecast for 11% growth, the Bank expects the economy to ‘rebound strongly in the remaining three quarters and grow by 10% in the full fiscal year before moderating to 7.5%’ in 2022-23.

 The Manila-based multilateral funding agency ADB has predicted the GDP growth for fiscal 2022-23 (FY23) to 7.5 per cent. The growth forecast for India in the fiscal year 2021 (ending in March 2022) was revised down, as the spike in COVID-19 cases during May dented the recovery, the Asian Development Bank (ADB).

WORLD BANK STOPS 'EASE OF DOING BUSINESSES REPORT'

 The World Bank Thursday said it would discontinue the practice of issuing the Doing Business report following an investigation prompted by internal reports of “data irregularities” in its 2018 and 2020 editions (released in 2017 and 2019, respectively) and possible “ethical matters” involving bank staff.

 According to an investigation conducted by Washington-based law firm WilmerHale, World Bank staff members changed data on China to improve its ranking on the ease of doing business, under pressure from the office of the then-World Bank president Jim Yong Kim and the then-chief executive Kristalina Georgieva and one of her advisers.

 The reports were flagged by the World Bank for certain “improper data changes” made in case of four countries — China, Azerbaijan, Saudi Arabia and the UAE — at the behest of senior executives at the bank.

 Notably, in three reports, released in 2017, 2018 and 2019, India ranked among the top 10 economies showing “the most notable improvement”.

 The latest report, published in October 2019, placed India at 63rd in Doing Business, compared with 77th in 2018 and 100 in 2017.

INDIA TO BECOME WORLD'S 3RD LARGEST IMPORTER BY 2050

 India could become the world’s third-largest importer by 2050, according to a report released by the UK’s Department of International Trade.

 With a 5.9 per cent share of global imports by 2050, the country will become the third-largest importer, following China and the United States.

 At present, India occupies the eighth spot on the list of the largest importing countries with a 2.8 per cent share.

 As per the Global Trade Outlook report, the country’s position on the list will jump to the fourth position by 2030 with a 3.9 per cent share.

 About UK’s Department of International Trade: The Department for International Trade is a United Kingdom government department responsible for striking and extending trade agreements between the United Kingdom and foreign countries, as well as for encouraging foreign investment and export trade.

APPOINTMENTS

VR CHAUDHARI APPOINTED AS NEXT IAF CHIEF

 Vice Chief of the Indian Air Force Air Marshal, Vivek Ram Chaudhari has been appointed the next Chief of Air Staff.

 The current Chief of Air Staff Air Chief Marshal RKS Bhadauria is set to retire on September 30.

 Chaudhari had taken over as the vice chief on July 1 this year, after Air Marshal HS Arora retired. He is a recipient of the Param Vishisht Seva Medal, Ati Vishisht Seva Medal and the Vayu Sena Medals.

 Experience of VR Chaudhari: He was commissioned in the fighter stream of the IAF in December 1982, he has a flying experience of more than 3,800 hours on a wide variety of fighter and trainer aircraft, including missions flown during Operation Meghdoot, the Air Force’s support to capture the Siachen glacier in the 1980s, and Operation Safed Sagar (the support provided by the IAF during the Kargil conflict in 1999).

 An alumnus of the National Defence Academy and Defence Services Staff College, Wellington, Chaudhari has commanded a frontline fighter squadron and a fighter base during his career.

 He has also held various other positions including the Deputy Commandant, Air Force Academy; Assistant Chief of Air Staff Operations (Air Defence) and Assistant Chief of Air Staff (Personnel Officers).

R. AGGARWAL AS DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC POLICY OF FB INDIA

 Facebook India appoints former IAS officer Rajiv Aggarwal as Director of Public Policy.

 The appointment of Aggarwal as Director of Public Policy will aid in defining and leading policy development initiatives for Facebook in India.

 Aggarwal has been appointed to cover a major agenda focusing on data protection, user safety, inclusion, privacy, and internet governance.

 Aggarwal will report directly to Ajit Mohan who is the Vice President and Managing Director of Facebook India.

 Former India Administrative Service (IAS) officer Rajiv Aggarwal was previously working with Uber as the Head of Public Policy for India and South Asia. Prior to that, in his career of 26 years as an IAS officer, he worked as a District Magistrate across several districts in Uttar Pradesh.

 Aggarwal kickstarted India’s first-ever national policy on Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) as a Joint Secretary in the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (M/o Commerce).

K. SATYARTHI APPOINTED AS UN SDG GOALS ADVOCATE

 Nobel Peace Laureate Kailash Satyarthi has been appointed by UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres as a Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) Advocate in the 76th UN General Assembly.

 Guterres appointed Satyarthi, STEM activist Valentina Munoz Rabanal, Microsoft President Brad Smith and K-pop superstars BLACKPINK as new SDG Advocates. With this, the UN now has total of 16 SDG Advocates.

About the SDG Advocates:

 The SDG Advocates use their considerable spheres of influence to reach new constituencies to act now and keep the promise of the Sustainable Development Goals for people and for the planet.

 The UN said climate action, bridging the digital divide, gender equality and the promotion of the rights of children are key issues to be championed by the new SDG Advocates.

 The SDG Advocates are prominent leaders in the world who work to mobilise action to deliver the 17 SDGs by 2030, using their considerable spheres of influence.

AWARDS & HONOURS

SHEIKH HASINA AWARDED WITH 'SDG PROGRESS AWARD'

 The UN-sponsored Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) has conferred Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina with "SDG Progress Award" for Bangladesh's steady course in responding to the universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure peace and prosperity for all.

 The platform aims to mobilize global scientific and technological expertise to promote practical solutions for sustainable development and gauge the country-specific competitiveness in development performances.

 Prime Minister Hasina is currently visiting the US to attend the 76th session of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA).

 About the SDSN: The SDSN was set up in 2012 under the auspices of the UN Secretary-General.

 Led by development economist Jeffery Sachs, the SDSN seeks to mobilize global scientific and technological expertise to promote practical solutions for sustainable development.

YEMENI ORGANISATION WINS NANSEN REFUGEE AWARD

 A humanitarian organization from Yemen has been declared as the winner of the 2021 UNHCR Nansen Refugee Award.

 The organisation named “Jeel Albena Association for Humanitarian Development”, founded in 2017 by Ameen Jubran has won the prestigious honour to support and provide a lifeline to tens of thousands of Yemenis people displaced by the country’s conflict.

 About the award: The UNHCR Nansen Refugee Award honours individuals, groups or organizations for going above and beyond the call of duty to protect refugees, other displaced and stateless people.

SPORTS

BEIJING WINTER OLYMPICS 2022 UNVEILED OFFICIAL MOTTO

 The Beijing 2022 Winter Olympics unveiled its official motto, “Together for a Shared Future”, during a ceremony at the city’s Capital Museum.

 The motto was chosen after a lengthy process that included a total of 79 different proposals. This motto embodies the Olympic spirit, the Chinese way of revealing the Olympic spirit.

 That’s because ‘together’ embodies a type of unity, cohesion and a way of overcoming difficulties.

 The Games will be held from February 4-20, with Beijing set to become the first city to host both the Summer and Winter Olympics.

LEWIS HAMILTON BECOMES 1ST F1 RACER TO WIN 100 RACES

 Lewis Hamilton finished first in the Russian Grand Prix on September 26 and became the first-ever Formula-one driver who reached his 100 wins.

 Hamilton finished over 53 seconds ahead of the second-placed Max Verstappen. Lewis Hamilton, the seven-time World Champion, overhauled the long-time race leader Lando Norris late on.

 Hamilton also moved to the top of the driver’s championship standings ahead of Verstappen. Hamilton is already holding the record for most F1 wins.

 Hamilton is a British racing driver and currently competes in Formula One for Mercedes. He has previously driven for McLaren from 2007 to 2012.

 He dramatically won his maiden title and became the then-youngest Formula One World Champion in history.

IMPORTANT DAYS AND DATES

WORLD MARITIME DAY OBSERVED ON 30TH SEPTEMBER

 World Maritime Day is observed every year across the globe by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO).

 The day is observed annually on the last Thursday of September to acknowledge and honour seafarers. This year, the special day is being marked today, 30 September.

 The day is also recognised and appreciated the significance of the maritime industry. It encourages people to consider issues of maritime security, safety, maritime environment, and shipping.

 The global shipping industry has played a vital role in the global response to the COVID-19 pandemic and the world witnessed the professionalism and sacrifice of seafarers who carried out their duties.

 Theme: This year, the theme for World Maritime Day is “Seafarers: At the core of shipping’s future”. It aims to extend the visibility of seafarers by focusing on the vital roles they play.

 History: World Maritime Day was instituted by the United Nations (UN) in 1948. The international conference in Geneva passed a convention establishing the IMO in order to celebrate the contribution of the maritime sector towards the global economy.

 Then in 1982, the IMO took the name Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO). Later, on 17 March 1978, World Maritime Day was celebrated for the first time.

INTERNATIONAL DAY OF PEACE: 21ST SEPTEMBER

 Every year on 21 September, International Day of Peace is observed and celebrated across the world.

 Also known as World Peace Day, the occasion aims to strengthen peace across nations by observing 24 hours of non-violence and ceasefire.

 Furthermore, it is a day completely devoted to promoting global solidarity for building a peaceful and sustainable world.

 Apart from living in harmony, the day seeks to remind people and nations to think about the importance of universal peace. In recent times there has been a surge in discrimination, hatred and stigma across the world that has costed more lives instead of saving them.

 Therefore as the world heals from the COVID-19 pandemic, the day gives us the opportunity to think creatively and collectively about how to help everyone recover better, how to build resilience, and how to transform the world into one that is more equal, more just, equitable, inclusive, sustainable, and healthier.

WORLD RHINO DAY OBSERVED ON 22ND SEPTEMBER

 World Rhino Day is observed globally on 22 September every year.

 This day provides the opportunity for cause-related organizations, NGOs, zoos, and members of the public to celebrate rhinos in their own unique ways.

 This day is celebrated to raise awareness of the need to protect all the five existing species of Rhinoceros, which are: Black Rhino, White Rhino, Greater one-horned Rhino, Sumatran Rhino and Javan Rhinos.

 History of World Rhino Day: World Rhino Day was first announced by World Wildlife Fund-South Africa in 2010 and is being observed internationally since 2011.

SEPTEMBER 25TH TO BE OBSERVED AS 'ANTYODAYA DIWAS'

 Urban Development Minister M. Venkaiah Naidu on Thursday announced that the government has decided to observe September 25 as 'Antyodaya Diwas' every year to mark the birth anniversary of erstwhile Bharatiya Jana Sangh and BJP icon Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya.

 "The Government of India has decided to observe 25th September as Antyodaya Diwas. The birthday of Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya, one of the great thinkers and philosophers of the nationalist movement of the country.

 "Antyodaya means uplifting the poorest of the poor. Reaching the person in the last mile, that is the message of this Antyodaya.

 About Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya:

 Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya, born in Mathura in 1916 was one of the key leaders of Bharatiya Jana Sangh from which the BJP later emerged. He was the leader of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh from 1953 to 1968.

 Deendayal Upadhyaya was a humanist, economist, journalist, philosopher and abled statesman.

 Deendayal Upadhyaya was introduced to the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) by his classmate named Baluji Mahashabde. Deendayal Upadhyaya cleared the civil services examination.

 He, however, didn’t join the service and became a volunteer of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS).

 In the 1940s, Deendayal Upadhyaya launched ‘Rashtra Dharma’, a monthly journal, from Uttar Pradesh’s Lucknow for spreading the ideology of Hindutva nationalism. Later, he started ‘Panchjanya’, a weekly magazine, and a daily, ‘Swadesh’.

WORLD TOURISM DAY OBSERVED ON 27TH SEPTEMBER

 World Tourism Day is observed on 27 September annually to raise awareness about the significance of tourism and how it affects social, political, cultural, and economic values globally.

 The day is marked to highlight the importance of the tourism sector in promoting and preserving cultures and heritage around the world.

 World Tourism Day also acknowledges the contributions the tourism sector can make towards attaining the Sustainable Development Goals.

 In times of the pandemic, as the tourism sector remains one of the worst affected sectors, here’s a look at the history and significance of the day.

 History: On 27 September 1970, the statutes of the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) were adopted.

 Five years later, these statues, considered a milestone in global tourism, paved the way for the establishment of the UNWTO.

 The UNWTO celebrated the first World Tourism Day on 27 September, 1980, to mark the occasion of its establishment. Ever since then, the day has been marked across the world.

 Theme: This year, the theme of World Tourism Day is “Tourism for Inclusive Growth,” focusing on growth and inclusive recovery. The UNWTO is focusing on the fact that there are people behind every tourism statistic and aims to acknowledge the same.

WORLD ENVIRONMENT HEALTH DAY ON 26TH SEPTEMBER

 The International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) declared to observe World Environmental Health Day on 26 September every year.

 This day is celebrated to shed the light on important work of environmental health around the world. The day is important in the current situation as most parts of the world continue to recover from the ongoing coronavirus pandemic situation.

 In such times, the importance of the Environmental Health workforce has been highlighted more than ever before.

 The theme for the 2021 World Environmental Health Day: Prioritizing Environmental Health for healthier communities in the global recovery.

 History of the day: In 2011, the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) declared to observe World Environmental Health Day on 26 September. The day was started by the Federation during a meeting in Indonesia on this day in 2011.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

DRDO SUCCESSFULLY TEST-FIRED AKASH PRIME MISSILE

 The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has carried successful maiden test flight of a new version of the Akash Missile named ‘Akash Prime’ from Integrated Test Range (ITR), Chandipur, Odisha.

 The success of the test flight demonstrates the competence of DRDO in the design and development of world-class Missile systems.

 The missile intercepted and destroyed an unmanned aerial target mimicking enemy aircraft, in its maiden flight test after improvements.

 In comparison to the existing Akash System, Akash Prime is equipped with an indigenous active Radio Frequency (RF) seeker for improved accuracy.

 Other improvements also ensure more reliable performance under low-temperature environments at higher altitudes.

 A modified ground system of the existing Akash weapon system has been used for the current flight test. The range stations of ITR comprising Radars, Electro-Optical Tracking System (EOTS) and Telemetry stations monitored the missile trajectory and flight parameters.

INDIA HISTORIC DEAL WITH AIRBUS FOR C-295 AIRCRAFT

 India signed a contract worth Rs 20,000 crore with Airbus Defence and Space of Spain to procure 56 C-295 military transport aircraft.

 The C-295 military transport aircraft will replace Indian Air Force's Avro-748 planes.

 The procurement has been long pending and it received formal approval from the Union Cabinet Committee on Security two weeks ago.

 While few of the aircraft will be procured in a fly-away condition, others will be manufactured and assembled by the Tata Advanced Systems (TASL).

 Out of the total 56 aircraft, 16 C-295 aircraft will be delivered in a flyaway condition within 48 months of signing by the Airbus Defence and Space.

 The remaining 40 planes will be manufactured in India within 10 years of signing the contract. It will be manufactured by a consortium led by Airbus Defence and Space and Tata Advanced Systems Limited (TASL).

MOD ORDERS FOR ARJUN MK-1A BATTLE TANKS

 Ministry of Defence will procure 118 Main Battle Tanks, MBTs Arjun Mk-1A for the Indian Army.

 The order was worth Rs 7,523 crore with Heavy Vehicles Factory, Avadi to sharpen the army’s combat edge. It will support the Make in India initiative in the defence sector and it will help in achieving the goal of Aatmanirbhar Bharat.

 About the Arjun Mk-1A Tank: The Main Battle Tank Mk-1A is a new variant of the Arjun Tank. It has been designed to enhance firepower, mobility, and survivability.

 Arjun Tank has been part of the Indian Army for the last 15 years. It has been designed and developed by Combat Vehicles Research and Development Establishment (CVRDE).

 It will be manufactured at the government’s Heavy Vehicles Factory in Chennai. It can work during day and night conditions and can hit the target in both static and dynamic modes.

NORTH KOREA TESTED HYPERSONIC MISSILE HWASONG-8

 North Korea successfully tested a new hypersonic missile called Hwasong-8, in a bid to increase the nation’s capabilities for self-defence.

 The missile was one of the five most important new weapons systems laid out by North Korea in the five-year military development plan.

 This was the country’s third missile test in a month. Earlier it tested a new type of cruise missile, as well as a new train-launched ballistic missile system.

 Hypersonic missiles are much faster and more agile than normal ones, making them much harder for missile defence systems to intercept.

 North Korea joins a small pool of countries, including the United States, Russia, China and India, in attempting to develop the weapons.

 In July Russia announced that it had successfully launched a hypersonic missile which reached a speed of 8659.88km/h (5381mph) from a frigate in the White Sea.

MISCELLANEOUS

ENCROACHMENT OF TEMPLE LAND AS NON-BAILABLE OFFENCE

 The Tamil Nadu Assembly passed a bill that makes the encroachment of properties belonging to religious institutions a cognizable and non-bailable offence.

 The bill seeking the amendment of the Tamil Nadu Religious and Charitable Endowments Act, 1959 was tabled in the assembly on September 13 and was passed unanimously.

 There are about 5 lakh acres of the properties that belong to over 40,000 religious institutions that are under the control of the Hindu Religious and Charitable Endowments (HR&CE) Department of the Tamil Nadu Government.

 The Government of Tamil Nadu has launched a massive drive to retrieve the temple lands that have been encroached in various areas of the State.

 As per the sub-section (3) of Section 79-B of the Tamil Nadu Religious and Charitable Endowments Act, 1959, no court will take cognizance of an offence of the unlawful possession of any property that belongs to a charitable or religious institution or the endowment except on the complaint in writing from the Commissioner.

'CYCLONE GULAB' HITS ANDHRA PRADESH & ODISHA

 The India Meteorological Department (IMD) has issued a red alert for Odisha and Andhra Pradesh after the ‘Cyclone Gulab’ made landfall over Northwest and adjoining West-central Bay of Bengal.

 Cyclone Gulab was named by Pakistan. The word “Gulab” refers to Rose in English. During the landfall, the wind speed could hover between 90 kmph and 100 kmph.

 The name Gulab is from the list of cyclone names that is maintained by the World Meteorological Organisation/United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (WMO/ESCAP) Panel on Tropical Cyclones (PTC).

 The panel comprises 13 countries namely, India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Pakistan, the Maldives, Oman, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Iran, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen, who choose the names of cyclones in the region.