It gives us great pleasure to release the monthly edition of the PRAVAHINI – Monthly e-Compendium & Weekly e-Periodicals of Current Affairs. The magazine’s members have shown considerable cooperation as well as devotion. We at successmantra.in work tirelessly to create this magazine and bring it to you with a great sense of gratitude.
The PRAVAHINI September-2022 eBook covers the current events that happened in the month of September. Current Affairs is a crucial component of any competitive exams including CLAT, AILET, DU-LLB, HM, CAT, IAS, PCS, SSC, CUET, Banking, MBA and various other competitive examinations.
Current Affairs play the bigger role in many competitive and government exams. It holds the power of making or breaking your chance of success. Therefore, the candidates should cover the Current Affairs thoroughly and smartly.
The PRAVAHINI September-2022 eBook is divided into different sections keeping in mind the need of various exams. The sections covered namely International, National, Economy, Ecology and Environment, Science & Technology, Legal Affairs, Sports, States News Makers and few others.
We would also be pleased to receive any suggestion that could assist us with the upcoming editions.
Success Mantra (GTB Nagar, Delhi)
Mail Id: [email protected]
TABLE OF CONTENTS
- National Affairs
- International Affairs
- Economic Affairs
- Important Dates
- Reports And Indexes
- Science & Technology
PM MODI UNVEILED NEW ENSIGN OF INDIAN NAVY
Prime Minister Narendra Modi recently unveiled the new ensign of the Indian Navy which takes inspiration from the seal of the great Indian emperor Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj.
This new ensign has two main components: the canton national ensign in the upper left, and a navy blue-gold octagon in the center of the fly side away from the staff.
St. George’s Cross has been removed from this new ensign. Now the tricolor is drawn in the top left. Next to it is the emblem of Ashoka in gold on a blue background. Below it is written ‘Sham no Varunah’ in Sanskrit language. It means that Varuna, the god of water, is auspicious for us.
History Behind the Naval Ensign
India became independent from the British colony, but the ensign of the Indian Navy remained a glimpse of the British period. The red cross seen on the Navy ensign is the ‘St George’s Cross’, which was once part of the English flag, the Union Jack.
It bears the insignia of the Red Cross Navy and the tricolor was placed in the top left.
NEED FOR UNIFIED METRO LAW
Recently, the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Housing and Urban Affairs flagged the need for single and comprehensive legislation for all the Metro rail networks in the country and opposed the existing three central acts.
All metro rail projects are covered under the legal framework of the Metro Railways (Construction of Works) Act, 1978; the Metro Railways (Operation and Maintenance) Act, 2002; and the Railways Act, 1989.
What are the Recommendations of the Panel?
There is a need for the use of the less capital-intensive MetroNeo and MetroLite networks in small cities with low ridership instead of the conventional Metro systems.
MetroNeo is a mass rapid transit system providing low-cost, energy-efficient and eco-friendly urban transport solutions for tier 2 and tier 3 cities.
Metrolite system will have a dedicated path separating the road traffic with it.
For segregation with road traffic, fencing can be provided on either side of the network.
Further, the Kochi Water Metro project should be included under the Ministry of Heavy Industries’ FAME II scheme as it would be a pollution-free mode of transport using battery-operated boats.
INDIA'S 1ST INDIGENOUS AIRCRAFT CARRIER: VIKRANT
Indigenous aircraft carrier ‘Vikrant’ is set to commission on September 2, 2022 in the presence of Prime Minister Narendra Modi.
The aircraft landing trials on INS Vikrant will begin in November and will be completed by mid-2023. The carrier should be fully operational by the end of 2023.
It is also known as Indigenous Aircraft Carrier One (IAC-1). It is being constructed by Cochin Shipyard, Kerala for the Indian Navy. It has an overall indigenous content of 76%.
This warship is 262 meters long, 62 meters wide and its height is 59 meters. Its construction started in 2009.
The project cost of INS Vikrant was escalated to 3.5 billion USD in 2014. In 2019 an additional 420 million USD was authorised for a phase 3 of the project.
5TH RASHTRIYA POSHAN MAAH 2022
The Ministry of Women and Child Development is celebrating 5th Rashtriya Poshan Mah 2022 from 1st to 30th September 2022.
This year, with the main focus on “Mahila aur Swasthya '' and “Bacha aur Shiksha '', Poshan Mah is to be started as Poshan Panchayat through Gram Panchayats.
Pregnant and lactating women, children below six years of age and adolescent girls will be given special attention in this month-long Poshan Mah.
Along with this, they will be made aware about the importance of nutrition through sensitization campaigns, outreach programs, and camps.
About POSHAN Abhiyaan
POSHAN Abhiyaan is the flagship programme of the government of India to improve nutritional outcomes for pregnant women, lactating mothers, children and adolescent Girls.
This mission was launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on the occasion of International Women’s Day on March 8, 2018.
POSHAN stands for “Prime Minister’s Overarching Scheme for Holistic Nutrition” Abhiyaan. This mission was announced in Budget 2021-2022.
BEST ASPIRATIONAL DISTRICT: HARIDWAR
NITI Aayog has declared Haridwar city of Uttarakhand as the best aspirational district on the basis of five parameters. Haridwar has secured first position in Basic Infrastructure theme. Now an additional allocation of Rs 3 crore will be made to this city.
This scheme has been implemented along with the central and state schemes. In its successful implementation, there is important cooperation of the ‘in-charge’ officers of the central, state level and district collectors.
The competition between these districts is maintained through equated monthly delta rankings, so that they are eager to make it a success.
The ranking of aspirational districts combines innovative use of data with practical governance, placing the district at the center of inclusive growth.
As per the norms for planning of aspirational districts, each district should prepare an action plan in consultation with the State and Central officers in charge, after which it should be sent to NITI Aayog for final approval of the Empowered Committee of Secretaries constituted for the programme.
WHAT IS PAREKH?
Union government is planning to set up a national regulator PAREKH (Performance Assessment, Review and Analysis of Knowledge for Holistic Development) for achieving a benchmark framework to assess students at the secondary and higher secondary level.
PAREKH, is also part of the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020.
What is PAREKH?
About: It's a proposed regulator, which will act as a constituent unit of the NCERT, and will also be tasked with holding periodic learning outcome tests like the National Achievement Survey (NAS) and State Achievement Surveys.
Its team will consist of leading assessment experts with a deep understanding of the education system in India and internationally.
It will eventually become the national single-window source for all assessment-related information and expertise, with a mandate to support learning assessment in all forms, both nationally and where applicable, internationally.
PRESIDENT TO LAUNCH 'TB MUKT BHARAT ABHIYAN'
President Draupadi Murmu will launch the Pradhan Mantri TB Mukt Bharat Abhiyaan virtually on 9th September 2022. The Pradhan Mantri TB Mukt Bharat Abhiyaan aims to eliminate tuberculosis from India by 2025.
Prime Minister Narendra Modi has given a distinctive call to end TB in India giving years ahead of the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) of 2030.
Along with this Presentation, Murmu will also launch the Ni-Kshay Mitra initiative which forms a vital component of the Campaign.
The Ni-Kshay Mitra initiative will provide a platform for the donors to help TB patients who are undergoing treatment. The donors will be called Ni-Kshay Mitras, and the donation will include nutritional, additional diagnostic, and volcanic support.
The event highlights the need for a societal approach that brings together people from all backgrounds to eliminate TB from the country by 2025.
INDIA'S HEALTHCARE INDUSTRY TO GROW BY 2025
India’s healthcare industry is expected to grow to hit $50 billion in size by 2025, said Union minister Jitendra Singh.
Addressing the 14th CII Global MedTech Summit, “Seizing the Global Opportunity”, the minister said that under Prime Minister Narendra Modi, healthcare has become more focused on innovation and technology over the past two years.
About 80% of the healthcare system aims to increase investment in digital healthcare tools in the coming five years.
The minister added that the prime objective of the government is to reduce import dependence from 80% to below 30% in next 10 years and ensure self-reliance quotient of 80% in med-tech through Make in India with SMART milestones.
Towards this, the Indian government has undertaken structural and sustained reforms to strengthen the healthcare sector and has also announced conducive policies for encouraging FDI.
WHAT IS PM SHRI-SCHOOLS?
Prime Minister Narendra Modi has announced a new initiative, the development and upgradation of 14 thousand 500 schools across the country under the Pradhan Mantri Schools For Rising India (PM-SHRI) Yojana.
PM-SHRI schools will become model schools which will encapsulate the full spirit of the National Education Policy.
The centrally sponsored scheme will be implemented by strengthening existing schools selected from amongst those managed by the Central government, states, Union Territories and local bodies.
The aim of these schools will not only be qualitative teaching, learning and cognitive development but also to create holistic and well-rounded individuals equipped with key 21st-century skills.
About the scheme: The PM-SHRI schools will have a modern, transformational and holistic method of imparting education. The PM-SHRI schools will further benefit lakhs of students across the country in the spirit of the National Education Policy.
PLACES OF WORSHIP ACT 1991
The Places of Worship Act 1991 was passed by parliament during the Ram Janmabhoomi movement. The Act was introduced to promote peace, harmony and brotherhood.
The main objective of the Act is to maintain the religious character of any such place as it existed on the 15th day of August 1947 (at the time of Independence).
The act prohibits conversion of any place of worship or changing the religious character of any place from its status at the time of Independence. The main purpose behind the Act was to check and control communal hatred and promote peace and harmony in the country.
The 1991 Act covered all disputed sites to which religious groups had raised a claim. The Ram Janmabhoomi-Babri case was excluded from the provision of the Act.
Section 4(2) of the Act says that any legal proceeding with respect to the conversion of the religious character of any place of worship existing on August 15, 1947, pending before any court, shall be dropped and no fresh suit or legal proceeding shall be initiated.
FIRST DISBURSEMENT UNDER PLI SCHEME
Recently, the first-ever disbursement has been approved by the empowered Committee in Production Linked Incentive (PLI) scheme for mobile manufacturing under the ‘Large-Scale Electronics Manufacturing’ sector.
Indian company Padget Electronics is the first beneficiary to receive an incentive.
What is the PLI Scheme?
The PLI scheme was conceived to scale up domestic manufacturing capability, accompanied by higher import substitution and employment generation.
The government has set aside Rs 1.97 lakh crore under the PLI schemes for various sectors and an additional allocation of Rs 19,500 crore was made towards PLI for solar PV modules in Budget 2022-23.
RAJPATH RENAMED TO KARTAVYA PATH
Recently, Prime Minister Narendra Modi inaugurated the road ‘Kartavya Path’ between Rashtrapati Bhavan to India Gate. Rajpath is the route where the 26 January parade takes place.
From Rajpath to Kartavya Path, a 15.5 km long walkway has been made of red granite on both sides of this road. Also 16 bridges have been built in the canal area of 19 acres.
There will be a seating arrangement on both sides of this duty path spread over 3.90 lakh square meters. This will also be completed with a completely green area.
It is a living path of India’s democratic past and all-time ideals.
When the people of the country come here, Netaji’s statue, National War Memorial, all these will give them a great inspiration, will inculcate a sense of duty in them.
The renaming of Rajpath is said to be in line with PM Modi’s Independence Day commitment to “remove traces of colonial mindset”.
According to the government, it marks a shift from territory to duty, public ownership and empowerment as a symbol of power.
QUEEN ELIZABETH DIES AT AGE OF 96
Britain’s longest-reigning monarch Queen Elizabeth II died at Balmoral Castle in Scotland on September 8, after ruling for 70 years.
About Queen Elizabeth II
Queen Elizabeth II was born as Elizabeth Alexandra Mary on 21 April 1926 as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York (later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth).
She acceded to the throne on 6 February 1952 at the age of 25 after her father, King George VI died. She was crowned as queen of Britain and other realms, including Canada and Australia on 2 June, 1953.
She is also Head of the Commonwealth and Supreme Governor of the Church of England. In 1945, she had actively joined World War II as a driver in the Women’s Auxiliary Territorial Service (WATS).
In 2015, Queen Elizabeth became the longest-serving British monarch, surpassing her great-great grandmother Queen Victoria.
This year, she became the world’s second longest reigning monarch. Upon the Queen’s death, her eldest son Charles, Prince of Wales, immediately acceded to the throne as King of the United Kingdom and fourteen other Commonwealth realms.
Plans for the Queen’s death and the accession of Charles, 73, to the British throne are code named Operation London Bridge and Operation Spring Tide respectively.
PM MODI TO TRAVEL FOR SCO MEETING
Prime Minister Narendra Modi is all set to travel to Samarkand in Uzbekistan for the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation summit on September 15 and 16. This will be the first in-person summit after June 2019 when the SCO summit was held in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.
The Prime Minister, sources said, is likely to reach Samarkand on September 14 and return on September 16.
India’s Presence: India’s presence at the summit is important because it will assume the rotational presidency of the SCO at the end of the Samarkand summit.
Delhi will hold the presidency of the grouping for a year until September 2023. So, next year, India will host the SCO summit which will be attended, among others, by leaders of China, Russia, and Pakistan.
RUSSIA-CHINA COOPERATION IN THE ARCTIC
Recently, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Warned Russia's Military built up and Chinese interest in Arctic Region.
As per various reports, China has deepening strategic partnership with Russia in the Arctic Region.
What are the Concerns Regarding the Cooperation?
Russian Military Build-up: Russia has set up a new Arctic Command and has opened hundreds of new and former Soviet-era Arctic military sites, including airfields and deep-water ports.
Significant Russian military build-up with new bases, new weapons systems and also using the High North as a test bed for their most advanced weapons, including hypersonic missiles.
China’s Claim: China has declared itself a near-Arctic state. Further, China plans to build the world’s largest icebreaker and is spending tens of billions of dollars on energy, infrastructure and research projects in the north.
Climate Change: As climate change thaws more ice, it is predicted to open up more waterways enabling deeper penetration in the area.
Further, these channels can be exploited by nations as they explore new shipping routes that could be a gamechanger in trade, cutting down longer and costlier journeys around the globe.
Conflict with US’s Interest: While China is not an Arctic nation, its deepening strategic partnership with Russia and increased cooperation in the Arctic has worried the US which thinks this pairing is against American values and interests.
UNITED KINGDOM NEW PRIME MINISTER: LIZ TRUSS
Liz Truss was elected as the leader of the ruling Conservative Party and the country’s next prime minister. Liz Truss is now the third woman to be elected prime minister of the United Kingdom.
By more than 20,000 votes, Liz Truss defeated Rishi Sunak, who is of Indian descent. The country is currently experiencing a cost of living crisis, industrial unrest, and a recession.
When the results of a vote among Conservative party members are announced, Foreign Secretary Truss, who has been the target of scathing scorn from Moscow for months, will succeed Boris Johnson as the leader of Britain. Truss defeated rival Rishi Sunak in the election.
The start of a transfer from Boris Johnson after weeks of a contentious and frequently pirate party leadership election that put Truss against a former finance minister named Rishi Sunak.
WHAT IS EXERCISE VOSTOK-22?
Recently, a contingent of soldiers from 7/8 Gorkha Rifles of the Indian Army arrived in Russia to participate in the multilateral tactical and command exercise Vostok – 2022 to be held from 1-7 September 2022.
Important Facts about Vostok 2022
In this exercise more than 50 thousand soldiers from India, China, Laos, Mongolia, Nicaragua, Syria and former Soviet countries will participate.
The seven-day exercise comprises land, air and sea components. However, India has decided to stay away from the maritime component.
There will be joint exercises of both attack and defense during this exercise. More than five thousand types of weapons will be used in this exercise. It will have 140 fighter aircraft, 60 warships, gunboats and allied ships.
The one-week-long exercise has been organized under the auspices of Russia’s Eastern Military District (Theater Command) and Pacific-Fleet in Vladivostok.
Vladivostok is located in the far east of Russia on the Sea of Japan. In such a situation, Japan has expressed its opposition to this military exercise.
WHO WERE UYGHURS MUSLIMS?
Recently, according to a report by United Nations, China is conducting serious human rights violations against Uyghurs that may amount to crimes against humanity.
What are the Key Highlights of the Report?
Persecution of Uyghurs: The report accuses China of sweeping a million or more people from minority groups into detention camps where many have said they were tortured, sexually assaulted, and forced to abandon their language and religion.
Who are Uyghurs?
The Uyghurs are a predominantly Muslim minority Turkic ethnic group, whose origins can be traced to Central and East Asia. The Uyghurs speak their own language, similar to Turkish, and see themselves as culturally and ethnically close to Central Asian nations.
The Uyghurs are considered to be one of the 55 officially recognized ethnic minority communities in China. However, China recognizes the community only as a regional minority and rejects that they are an indigenous group.
US & INDONESIA CONDUCTED MILITARY DRILLS
Recently, the United States and Indonesian militaries had conducted annual joint combat exercises on Indonesia’s Sumatra Island.
For the first time, participants from other partner nations have also joined amid growing maritime activity by China in the Indo-Pacific region.
What do we need to know about the Joint Military Drill?
More than 5,000 soldiers from the U.S., Indonesia, Australia, Japan and Singapore participated in this 2022’s exercises.
The exercises were designed to strengthen interoperability, capability, trust and cooperation in support of a free and open Indo-Pacific. The exercises lasted till 14th August 2022, encompassing army, navy, air force and marine drills.
FIFTH LARGEST ECONOMY IN THE WORLD
Recently, India has overtaken the UK to become the fifth largest economy in the world. India is now behind the US, China, Japan and Germany in terms of economy.
A decade ago, India was ranked 11th among the world’s largest economies, while the UK was firmly at number 5.
In the midst of the economic crisis, India has faced the challenges better. On the other hand, Britain is bearing the brunt of its slowness.
These figures are given in dollars, and it is worth noting that the Indian rupee has outperformed the UK pound against the dollar.
According to the report, the size of the Indian economy with respect to ‘nominal’ cash stood at USD 854.7 billion during the March quarter. In contrast, the same was USD 814 billion for the UK.
On the other hand, the Indian economy is registering a growth of 7 per cent, while the UK economy is growing at less than 1 per cent.
Due to these reasons, India grew rapidly but Britain could not perform like India and fell behind India in sixth place.
Significantly, India has also performed well in the agriculture and services sector. In the first quarter (April-June) of the current financial year, the country’s GDP has been 13.5 percent. At the same time, comparing it with the April-June quarter of the last financial year (2021-22), the GDP growth rate at that time was 20.1 percent.
INDIA TO BECOME THIRD LARGEST ECONOMY BY 2029
India is set to become the third largest economy in the world by 2029. A State Bank of India report said India will surpass Germany in 2027 and most likely Japan by 2029 at the current rate of growth.
The report said that the country has undergone a large structural shift since 2014 and is now the 5th largest economy overtaking the United Kingdom.
The research report from SBI’s Economic Research Department highlighted that Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate for FY23 is estimated between 6.7-7.7 per cent, but it is normal to have a 6-6.5 per cent growth due to global uncertainties.
SC JUDGE DY CHANDRACHUD AS NALSA CHAIRMAN
Supreme Court judge Justice DY Chandrachud has been appointed as the next executive chairperson of the National Legal Services Authority (NALSA).
The post was previously held by the Chief Justice of India UU Lalit. President Droupadi Murmu has appointed Justice D.Y. Chandrachud as the executive chairman of the NALSA.
Before being elevated as a judge of the Supreme Court, Justice Chandrachud served as the Chief Justice of the Allahabad High Court and prior to that a judge of the Bombay High Court.
About the NALSA: The NALSA has been constituted under the Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987 to provide free Legal Services to the weaker sections of the society.
Its purpose is to provide free legal services to eligible candidates, and to organize Lok Adalats for the speedy resolution of cases.
While the CJI is the Patron-in-Chief, the second senior most judge of the Supreme Court of India is the executive chairperson of the Authority.
VOLKER TURK AS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS
UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres will propose the appointment of Austria’s Volker Turk as the next High Commissioner for Human Rights. He will succeed Michelle Bachelet of Chile, whose term ended on August 31.
Traditionally, the UN chief consults with the permanent members of the UN Security Council – China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States – before selecting a High Commissioner.
The appointment of Volker Turk must be approved by the United Nations General Assembly in New York.
Other candidates for the position included career diplomat Federico Villegas from Argentina and Adama Dieng of Senegal.
Who is Volker Turk?
Volker Turk holds a doctorate in international law from the University of Vienna and a Master of Law from the University of Linz, Austria.
He is proficient in many languages. He has good command over English, French and German languages along with a working knowledge of Spanish.
Turk has held several key positions during his career. He also served as Director of the Department for International Security from 2009 to 2015, including as the United Nations High Commissioner for the UNHCR Agency.
RECIPIENTS OF RAMON MAGSAYSAY AWARD
Ramon Magsaysay Awards were announced recently. This year the award will go to Sothiara Chim, Psychiatrist (Cambodia), Tadashi Hattori, Ophthalmologist (Japan), Bernadette Madrid, Pediatrician (Philippines) and Gary Bencheghib, activist and filmmaker (Indonesia).
Sothiara Chhim, Psychiatrist (Cambodia)
Sothiara Chhim, a 54-year-old Cambodian, was rewarded for dedicating her life to helping those suffering under the Khmer Rouge regime. Sothiara Chhim himself was also a survivor of the ultra-Maoist Khmer Rouge regime, which in the 1970s killed nearly a quarter of Cambodia’s population through starvation, overwork and mass executions.
Tadashi Hattori, Ophthalmologist (Japan)
Tadashi Hatori, a 58-year-old Japanese ophthalmologist, was honored for providing free eye surgery in Vietnam, where such specialists and facilities are limited.
Bernadette Madrid, Pediatrician (Philippines)
Bernadette Madrid, 64, has received an award for helping domestic abuse victims and setting up a child protection center in the Philippines. Since 1997, he has headed the country’s first child protection center at the Philippine General Hospital in Manila. It has served more than 27,000 children over the last year.
Gary Bencheghib, activist and film producer (Indonesia)
27-year-old French environmental activist and filmmaker Gary Bencheghib has been given the award for his efforts to clean up Indonesia’s polluted waterways. Bencheghib and his brother have built a kayak made of plastic bottles and bamboo to pick up garbage in the Citarum River, one of the world’s most polluted rivers.
STOCKHOLM JUNIOR WATER PRIZE 2022
Recently, Annabelle M. Rayson, a student from Canada received the prestigious 2022 Stockholm Junior Water Prize for her research on how to treat and prevent harmful algae blooms.
Harmful Algal Blooms, or HABs, occur when colonies of algae grow out of control and produce toxic or harmful effects on people, fish, shellfish, marine mammals and birds.
What is the Stockholm Junior Water Prize?
About: Stockholm Junior Water is an international competition where students aged 15 to 20 years present solutions to major water challenges.
It has been organized every year since 1997 by the Stockholm International Water Institute, with Xylem, an American water technology provider. This prize is a popular part of the World Water Week.
NEERAJ CHOPRA WINS DIAMOND LEAGUE FINALS
Tokyo Olympic gold medalist Neeraj Chopra has become the first Indian to win the prestigious Zurich Diamond League Final 2022 in Switzerland.
Neeraj Chopra started with a foul but rose to the top spot with a throw of 88.44m – the fourth best of his career – in his second attempt, and it turned out to be his winning effort. He did 88.00m, 86.11m, 87.00m and 83.60m in his next four throws.
Chopra was also awarded the Diamond Trophy, prize money of US$30,000 and a wild card for the 2023 World Athletics Championships in Budapest, Hungary.
Czech Olympic silver medalist Jakob Vadlge finished second with a best throw of 86.94m, which he recorded in his fourth attempt. Germany’s Julian Weber finished third with 83.73m.
MAX VERSTAPPEN WINS BELGIAN GRAND PRIX
Red Bull’s driver Max Verstappen has won the Belgian Formula 1 Grand Prix 2022. Red Bull’s Sergio Perez & Ferrari’s Carlos Sainz finished in second and third positions respectively. Verstappen has now won 9 of this season’s 14 races.
It was his 71st podium finish & he collected 26 points from this race. Verstappen won the Belgian GP in 2021 as well.
Here is the list of previous Grand Prix 2022 Winners:
Canadian Grand Prix 2022: Max Verstappen (Netherlands)
Azerbaijan Grand Prix 2022: Max Verstappen (Netherlands)
Miami Grand Prix 2022: Max Verstappen (Netherlands)
Emilia-Romagna Grand Prix 2022: Max Verstappen (Netherlands)
Saudi Arabian Grand Prix 2022: Max Verstappen (Netherlands)
Azerbaijan Grand Prix 2022: Max Verstappen (Netherlands)
French Grand Prix 2022: Max Verstappen (Netherlands)
Hungarian Grand Prix 2022: Max Verstappen (Netherlands)
Belgian Grand Prix 2022: Max Verstappen (Netherlands)
Monaco Grand Prix Monaco 2022: Sergio Pérez (Mexico) to
Australian Grand Prix. 2022: Charles Leclerc (Monaco)
IMPORTANT DATES & DAYS
NATIONAL TEACHER'S DAY: 5TH SEPTEMBER
The National Teachers Day is observed every year on 5th September in India to commemorate the birthday of the country's first Vice President and second President Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan.
Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was born on 5 September 1888 in Thiruttani in the Madras Presidency of British India (now in Tamil Nadu).
He was an Indian philosopher and statesman and one of best known scholars in the field of comparative religion and philosophy in India in the 20th century.
He had tremendously contributed towards new contemporary Hindu identity in eyes of the ill-informed Westeners.
He held great respect for teachers and always believed that teachers are real nation builders and thus should always be the best minds in the country.
He was the first Vice President of India (in office from 1952–1962), Second President of India (in office from 1962 to 1967).
He was the first recipient of Bharat Ratna, India’s highest civilian award along with politician C. Rajagopalachari, scientist C. V. Raman. He was also awarded British Royal Order of Merit (1963).
INTERNATIONAL LITERACY DAY: 8TH SEPTEMBER
The International Literacy Day (ILD) is observed every year across the world on 8 September to emphasize the importance of literacy to individuals, society and communities. The day was instituted in 1966 by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). This year it was 54th International Literacy Day.
The ILD 2022 theme announced by UNESCO was “Transforming Literacy Learning Spaces'.
It seeks to highlight the importance of embracing linguistic diversity in education and literacy development as it is central to addressing persisting literacy challenges and to achieving Sustainable Development Goals.
Background: The International Literacy Day (ILD) was officially proclaimed by UNESCO in its 14th Session in November 1966. Since then, it is celebrated annually by member countries of UNESCO.
WORLD EV DAY OBSERVED ON 9TH SEPTEMBER
World EV Day 2022 is observed on the 9th of September. World EV Day is observed to emphasize the importance of e-mobility. World EV day helps to spread awareness about sustainable transport facilities to the people.
Air pollution is mainly caused by transportation, and EVs are one of the major alternatives to decrease air pollution.
The first World EV Day was observed in 2020 and was an initiative of Sustainability Media Company Greet TV. Every year, World EV Day is observed on 9th September 2022.
HIMALAYA DAY CELEBRATED ON 9TH SEPTEMBER
Himalaya Day is celebrated every year on 9 September with an aim to preserve the Himalayan ecosystem and region. In 2015, September 9 was officially declared as Himalaya Day by the then Chief Minister of Uttarakhand.
The Himalayas play an important role in saving and maintaining nature and protecting the country from adverse weather conditions.
Himalaya Day is also an excellent day to raise awareness among the general public and bring about community participation in conservation activities.
REPORTS & INDEXES
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2021-22
India has been ranked 132 out of 191 countries in the recently released Human Development Report 2021-22 by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). Last year the country was ranked 131st.
This year’s report is titled “Uncertain Times, Unsettled Lives: Shaping Our Future in a Transforming World”.
India’s HDI value during 2021 was 0.633, lower than the world average of 0.732. In 2020 also, India recorded a decline in its HDI value (0.642) as compared to the pre-Covid level of 2019 (0.645).
Gross National Income (GNI) per capita: India’s GNP per capita (2017 PPP) at $6,590.
India’s Life expectancy at birth: In 2021, India’s life expectancy at birth was recorded at 67.2 years.
India’s Life expectancy at birth: The decline in India’s HDI from 0.645 in 2018 to 0.633 in 2021 can be attributed to falling life expectancy at birth.
Switzerland has been ranked first in the report of the United Nations Human Development Index. It is followed by Norway, then Iceland, Hong Kong and Australia in fifth place.
About Human Development Index
The HDI is an average measure of basic human development achievements in a country measured by UNDP. It is a summary measure for assessing long-term progress in three basic dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life, access to knowledge and a decent standard of living.
INDIA'S GAUTAM ADANI: WORLD'S 3RD RICHEST
India’s Gautam Adani is now the third richest person in the world. The rankings by Bloomberg Billionaires Index come as business conglomerate Adani Group’s chairman overtakes Louis Vuitton chairman Bernard Arnault.
With a total net worth of USD 137.4 billion, 60-year-old Adani is now just behind business magnate Elon Musk and Jeff Bezos in the ranking. This is the first time an Asian person has broken into the top three of the Bloomberg Billionaires Index.
In the latest Bloomberg Billionaires Index, Reliance chief Mukesh Ambani is at number 11 with a total of USD 91.9 billion worth.
The index is a daily ranking of the world’s richest people. The net worth of Elon Musk and Jeff Bezos is currently at USD 251 billion and USD 153 billion, respectively.
Gautam Adani and Adani group:
Adani is a first-generation entrepreneur and the Adani Group comprises 7 publicly listed entities with businesses spanning energy, ports and logistics, mining and resources, gas, defence and aerospace and airports. In each of its business areas, the Group has established a leadership position in India.
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
WHAT IS QUANTUM COMPUTING?
According to a study by IBM, India is witnessing a growing interest in quantum computing, with students, developers, and academia actively participating. Consequently, the country is emerging as a talent hub for quantum computing.
What is Quantum Computing?
Quantum computing is a rapidly-emerging technology that harnesses the laws of quantum mechanics to solve problems too complex for classical computers.
Quantum mechanics is a subfield of physics that describes the behavior of particles — atoms, electrons, photons, and almost everything in the molecular and submolecular realm.
It is an exciting new technology that will shape our world tomorrow by providing us with an edge and a myriad of possibilities. It is a fundamentally different way of processing information compared to today’s classical computing systems.
TEJAS MARK-2 MEGA PROJECT
The Tejas Mark-2 project has received approval from the PM Narendra Modi-led Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS), advancing India’s push for indigenous fighter aircraft.
The Tejas Mark-2 project, which would cost more than 6,500 crore, was cleared by the CCS. The Tejas Mark-2 will be crucial to the country’s military forces.
On the Tejas Mark-1, technologies including fly-by-wire, avionics, composites, and others have been previously demonstrated.
The government intends to approve the fifth-generation advanced medium combat aircraft (AMCA) with stealth features and supercruise capabilities in addition to the Tejas Mark-2.
The AMCA project is anticipated to receive approval from the CCS for 15,000 crore.
In comparison to the Tejas Mark-1, the Tejas Mark-2 will have GE-414 engines in the 98 Kilonewton thrust class, a longer combat range, and a larger weapon carrying capacity.
QUICK REACTION SURFACE TO AIR MISSILE (QRSAM)
Recently, India conducted six successful flight-tests of the Quick Reaction Surface to Air Missile (QRSAM) system from Integrated Test Range (ITR) Chandipur off the Odisha coast.
The test was jointly conducted by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Indian Army.
What is QRSAM?
QRSAM is a canister-based system, which means that it is stored and operated from specially designed compartments.
In the canister, the inside environment is controlled, thus along with making its transport and storage easier, the shelf life of weapons also improves significantly. The system is capable of detecting and tracking targets on the move and engaging targets with short halts.
Range and mobility: It is a short-range surface-to-air missile (SAM) system, primarily designed and developed by DRDO to provide a protective shield to moving armoured columns of the Army from enemy aerial attacks.
The entire weapon system has been configured on a mobile and manoeuvrable platform and is capable of providing air defence on the move.
THIRD STEALTH FRIGATE OF INDIA'S NAVY PROJECT 17A
‘Taragiri’, the third stealth frigate of the Indian Navy’s Project 17A, was launched in Mumbai, the Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders (MDL) said.
This ship has been built using an integrated construction methodology which involves hull block construction in different geographical locations and integration and erection on the slipway at the MDL, it said in a statement.
The ship was named by Charu Singh, President, Navy Wives Welfare Association (Western Region), and wife of vice admiral Ajendra Bahadur Singh, FOC-in-C Western Naval Command, who was the chief guest.
The keel of ‘Taragiri’ was laid on September 10, 2020. The ship is expected to be delivered by August 2025, the statement said. The vessel is being launched with an approximate launch weight of 3,510 tons.
The frigate is designed by the Indian Navy’s in-house design organization, the Bureau of Naval Design.
INDIA'S 1ST CERVICAL CANCER VACCINE
India is set to launch its first indigenously developed Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine (qHPV) against Cervical cancer with the help of the Serum Institute of India (SII) and the Department of Biotechnology (DBT) on 1st September 2022.
The vaccine for Cervical cancer “CERVAVAC”, will be launched by Union Minister of State Science and Technology Jitendra Singh. The vaccine is likely to cost around 200-400 per dose.
As per the government data, cervical cancer ranks number 2 for most prevalent cancer in India and also accounts for one-fourth of the world’s cervical cancer deaths.
Approximately 1.25 lakhs women are diagnosed with Cervical cancer and over 75 thousand females die from the disease in India.
UNESCO GLOBAL NETWORK OF LEARNING CITIES
Recently, three cities in India have joined the UNESCO Global Network of Learning Cities. These include two cities Thrissur and Nilambur in Kerala and Warangal in Telangana.
UNESCO Global Network of Learning Cities:
Warangal is the second UNESCO recognition for Telangana. Earlier, Ramappa Temple in Mulugu district was included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
This time, Ukraine’s capital Kyiv, South African city Durban and UAE city Sharjah have been included in this list of UNESCO Global Network of Learning Cities.
In the year 2022, 77 cities from 44 countries of the world including India have been included in this list.
The inclusion of these cities will encourage exchange of ideas with other cities and share among themselves the methods of systems already implemented in these cities.
The three cities are: