It gives us great pleasure to release the monthly edition of the PRAVAHINI – Monthly e-Compendium & Weekly e-Periodicals of Current Affairs. The magazine’s members have shown considerable cooperation as well as devotion. We at successmantra.in work tirelessly to create this magazine and bring it to you with a great sense of gratitude.
The PRAVAHINI September-2022 eBook covers the current events that happened in the month of September. Current Affairs is a crucial component of any competitive exams including CLAT, AILET, DU-LLB, HM, CAT, IAS, PCS, SSC, CUET, Banking, MBA and various other competitive examinations.
Current Affairs play the bigger role in many competitive and government exams. It holds the power of making or breaking your chance of success. Therefore, the candidates should cover the Current Affairs thoroughly and smartly.
The PRAVAHINI September-2022 eBook is divided into different sections keeping in mind the need of various exams. The sections covered namely International, National, Economy, Ecology and Environment, Science & Technology, Legal Affairs, Sports, States News Makers and few others.
We would also be pleased to receive any suggestion that could assist us with the upcoming editions.
Success Mantra (GTB Nagar, Delhi)
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
- National Affairs
- International Affairs
- Economic Affairs
- Important Dates
- Reports And Indexes
- Science & Technology
INCLUSION OF TRIBALS IN ST CATEGORY
The Union Cabinet chaired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi recently gave its nod for the inclusion of tribes of five states in the Scheduled Tribes (ST) category.
The Union Cabinet has approved the inclusion of tribes from Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Uttar Pradesh in the ST category. It has included 12 communities to the ST list. This community is named based on its traditional occupation of selling home-grown crops, vegetables, meat and wool at small-town markets called haats.
It has been demanding ST status since 1967, when the status was granted to people living in Jaunsar Bawar area in Uttarakhand, which shares a border with the Sirmaur district. The Narikuravans and Kuruvikarans in Tamil Nadu have been demanding ST status since 1965 based on the recommendations by the Lokur Panel.
Betta-Kuruba tribe in Karnataka’s Chamarajnagar, Kodagu and Mysuru districts have been demanding ST status for the past 3 decades but have not been granted because of spelling errors and similar sounding names.
PM MODI LAUNCHED NATIONAL LOGISTICS POLICY
Prime Minister Modi recently launched the National Logistics Policy (NLP).
The National Logistics Policy aims to promote smooth movement of goods across India and boost competitiveness of the Indian goods in the domestic and international markets.
It aims to bring down the logistics cost, which in turn would improve efficiency of various sectors of the economy, boosting value addition and economic growth. The policy was announced for the first time in the Union Budget 2020.
Its focus areas are Integration of Digital System (IDS), Unified Logistics Interface Platform (ULIP), Ease of Logistics (ELOG) and System Improvement Group (SIG).
The ULIP aims to ensure continuous monitoring of cargo movement. The ELOG would seek to simplify procedures and achieve ease of doing business.
SOVA VIRUS ATTACKING INDIAN CUSTOMERS
CERT-In has given advisory on SOVA virus – a novel mobile banking “Trojan” virus that is currently targeting Indian customers.
The Sova virus is capable of stealthily encrypting an android phone for ransom. It can add false overlays to a range of apps and mimic over 200 banking and payment applications to con the android users.
The latest version can hide itself within fake android applications that show up with the logo of a few famous apps like Chrome, Amazon, NFT platform etc., to deceive users into installing them.
This malware is distributed through smishing (phishing via SMS) attacks like most Android banking Trojans.
RAMKRISHNA MISSION 'AWAKENING PROGRAMME'
Union Minister for Education and Skill Development & Entrepreneurial Shri Dharmendra Pradhan launched the Ramkrishna Mission ‘Awakening’ Program for students of classes I to V.
Key Points related to Ramkrishna Mission ‘Awakening’ Program
Shri Dharmendra Pradhan said that NEP 2020 is inspired by the philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Social transformation is one of the key goals of education, and values and wisdom are more important than material wealth.
Ramkrishna Mission has a legacy of imparting applied education. NEP 2020 emphasizes on creating value-based educational programs for 9th and 12th in addition to creating programs for classes I to VIII.
This initiative will ensure holistic personality development of a child aligned with the philosophy of NEP 2020.
INDIAN AMRY 'EXERCISE PARVAT PRAHAR'
Army Chief General Manoj Pande recently visited the Ladakh sector to review Exercise Parvat Prahar and was briefed about the operational preparedness on the ground by the commanders.
The exercise saw the deployment of an all new major induction of the Army.
This exercise named Parvat Prahar is being conducted by the One Strike Corps of the Indian Army. ‘The strike corps means that if China or Pakistan act anywhere, they will first enter and eliminate it.
Parvat Prahar is a 20-day long exercise of the Indian Army. The exercise comes as India and China are separating from the Gogra-Hot Springs (PP-15) in eastern Ladakh, as announced on September 8.
This dissolution process follows the 16th round of talks between the Corps Commanders of India and China held at the Chushul Moldo meeting point on July 17, 2022.
It is believed that from the above place the Indian Army may withdraw its forces towards Karam Singh Hill, while the Chinese Army may return to Chinese territory in the north.
COUNTRY'S FIRST LARGEST RUBBER DAM
Recently, Bihar Chief Minister Nitish Kumar inaugurated the country’s largest rubber dam and a steel bridge over the Falgu river near Vishnupad temple in Bihar. CM Nitish Kumar had laid its foundation stone on 22 September 2020.
The Gayaji Dam has been constructed by Rubina Company of Austria in collaboration with Nagarjuna Construction Company of Hyderabad on the advice of experts from IIT Roorkee.
Apart from the rubber dam, the banks along the Falgu River have also been developed and a steel bridge has been built for pilgrims to visit Sita Kund.
The rubber dam is made of 17 mm thick rubber. This dam is 400 meters wide and 3 meters high. After the construction of the dam, its water will be stored for about two and a half kilometers.
The height of Bar Dam has been kept at three meters. It will hold water up to three meters. If there is more water than this, the water from the top of the rubber dam will flow downwards i.e. in the north direction. In special circumstances, arrangements have been made to release water from the rubber dam.
RIGHT TO FREEDOM OF RELIGION BILL
The ‘Karnataka Protection of Right to Freedom of Religion Bill’ was recently passed by the state legislative council.
Karnataka’s anti-conversion bill was passed by the legislative assembly in December 2021.
The bill bans forced religious conversions by direct or indirect means. It gives specific procedures for undertaking a religious conversion. This bill gives a penalty to anyone who forcibly converts minors, women, SC/ST, or a person of unsound mind with 3 to 10 years imprisonment and a fine of Rs.50,000.
Mass conversion (two or more people) could result in 3 to 10 years of imprisonment and Rs.1 lakh fine.
Under this legislation, any individual seeking to convert their religion must submit a declaration at least 30 days before the conversion to the District Magistrate.
PLEA ON WESTERN GHATS
Recently, the Supreme Court has dismissed Public Interest Litigation (PIL), which challenged the Gadgil and Kasturirangan Committees on Western Ghats Ecologically Sensitive Area (ESA).
What are Eco-Sensitive Areas?
Eco-Sensitive Areas (ESAs) are areas notified by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) around Protected Areas, National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries under the Environment Protection Act 1986.
The basic aim is to regulate certain activities around National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries so as to minimize the negative impacts of such activities on the fragile ecosystem encompassing the protected areas.
What was the PIL?
The petitioner had pleaded to the apex court to not implement the recommendations of the Western Ghats Ecologically Expert Panel (Gadgil Committee Report) and the High-Level Working Group (Kasturirangan Committee Report).
It asked the court to declare the 2018 draft notification by the Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC) as ultra vires (beyond its legal power or authority) as it may lead to the violation of the Right To Life of the citizens hailing from the Western Ghats, especially Kerala.
FIRST EVER 'CINEMATIC TOURISM POLICY'
Gujarat Chief Minister, Bhupendra Patel has announced Gujarat’s first-ever ‘Cinematic Tourism Policy’ in the presence of dignitaries including actor Ajay Devgan, and State Government Minister Shri.
This new policy will create viable opportunities for film production in Gujarat and also provide employment opportunities to local people.
There are many places in Gujarat like the White Desert of Kutch, Shivrajpur Beach where there are ample opportunities to become shooting spots.
COUNTRY TO BECOME POWER SURPLUS
The country has become power surplus; we have connected the whole country into one grid, and strengthened the distribution system. These steps have increased the power availability to 22 hours in rural areas and 23.5 hours in urban areas.
The next step is to take it to a 24X7 guaranteed power supply at an affordable price.
The suggestion came during a review meeting chaired by Singh with Additional Chief Secretaries and Principal Secretaries of Power/Energy Departments of states and UTs and CMDs/MDs of power sector CPSUs here.
CHEETAHS INTRODUCTION IN KUNO NATIONAL PARK
The first batch of cheetahs is currently being brought from Namibia to be introduced into Kuno National Park in Madhya Pradesh. Prime Minister Modi would release 8 cheetahs into the national park on September 17.
The Government is planning to reintroduce cheetahs, which became extinct in India in 1952. Asiatic cheetahs became extinct in India because of habitat loss, shrinking prey base, climate change and growing human population.
Currently, Iran is the only country in the world to have a living population of Asiatic cheetahs.
India has been planning to introduce cheetahs since the 1960s and 1970s. However, this plan never came to fruition as Tehran refused to part with the critically low population of Asiatic Cheetahs. African cheetahs are slightly larger than their Asian counterparts. They are found all across Africa and are listed as vulnerable by the IUCN’s Red List.
GUJARAT WITHDRAWS CATTLE CONTROL BILL
The Gujarat Legislative Assembly had unanimously withdrawn the Cattle Control Bill after protests from cattle-rearing communities across the state.
The proposed legislation sought to ban the movement of stray cattle on roads and public places in the urban regions of Gujarat.
It covered 8 major cities – Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Surat, Rajkot, Gandhinagar, Jamnagar, Bhavnagar and Junagadh as well as 162 towns in Gujarat.
The Gujarat Cattle Control (Keeping and Moving) In Urban Areas Bill mandated the cattle rearers to obtain licence to keep animals like stray cows and bulls in cities and towns and get them tagged.
If the owner of the cattle fails to tag the cattle in 15 days, he would be punished with imprisonment that may extend up to 1 year or be fined with Rs.10,000 or both.
WHAT IS BRU AGREEMENT?
The Central Government has agreed to extend the deadline for the resettlement of Bru while reviewing the implementation of the Bru agreement.
Union Home Minister Amit Shah reviewed the implementation of the Bru agreement with Tripura Chief Minister Manik Saha. They found significant progress being made in the resettlement process of Bru people, who were displaced from Mizoram, in Tripura.
Under the agreement, the Bru community currently living in temporary relief camps in Tripura will be settled in the state.
The Bru, who returned to Mizoram in the eight phases of repatriation since 2009, cannot return to Tripura under this agreement.
The beneficiaries under this agreement will receive housing assistance and they will be settled in four clusters.
SC CONVERTED TO ISLAM & CHRISTIANITY
The Central Government will constitute a national commission to study the social, economic and educational status of members of Scheduled Castes or Dalits who have converted to religions other than Hinduism, Buddhism and Sikhism.
This proposed commission is significant as several petitions are currently pending before the Supreme Court seeking SC reservation benefits for Dalits who have converted to Christianity or Islam.
The Constitution (Scheduled Castes) Order, 1950 under Article 341 states that no individual belonging to religion other than Hinduism, Sikhism or Buddhism can be recognized as a member of the Scheduled Caste.
The original order classified SC members belonging to only Hinduism. It was later amended in 1956 to include Sikhs and in 1990 to include Buddhists.
Ranganath Misra Commission
The National Commission for Religious and Linguistic Minorities headed by the former Chief Justice of India Justice Ranganath Misra was set up in 2004 to recommend ways to ensure welfare of socially and economically backward sections among linguistic and religious minorities in India.
This commission recommended the complete delinking of SC status from religion and makes it religion-neutral like STs. This recommendation was not adopted as it did not have sufficient backing from field studies.
INDIA & JAPAN 2+2 MINISTERIAL DIALOGUE
The second India-Japan 2+2 Foreign and Defence Ministerial Meeting was held in Tokyo on September 8, 2022, and was attended by the Indian Minister of Defence, Shri Rajnath Singh, the Indian Minister of External Affairs, Dr. S. Jaishankar, the Japanese Ministers of Foreign Affairs, Mr. HAYASHI Yoshimasa, and the Japanese Minister of Defense, Mr. HAMADA Yasukazu.
The Ministers reaffirmed their commitment to a rules-based international order that respects sovereign and territorial integrity of nations and stressed the need for all nations to seek peaceful resolution of disputes in accordance with international law without resorting to threat or use of force or any attempt to unilaterally change the status quo.
They acknowledged that global cooperation is needed more than ever to address security challenges that have become more acute. The Ministers emphasised their dedication to the achievement of a free and open Indo-Pacific region that is inclusive, resilient, based on the rule of law, and free from coercion.
JAPAN-INDIA MILITARY EXERCISE: JIMEX 2022
The sixth edition of the Japan-India Maritime Exercise (JIMEX 22) was kicked off on September 11, 2022.
The JIMEX 2022 is currently being hosted by the Indian Navy in the Bay of Bengal. India is being represented by three indigenously designed and built warships.
These are Sahyadri (a multi-purpose stealth frigate) and two Anti-Submarine Warfare Corvettes Kadmatt and Kavaratti.
Guided Missile Destroyer Ranvijay, Fleet Tanker Jyoti, Offshore Patrol Vessel Sukanya, submarines, MIG 29K fighter aircraft, Long Range Maritime Patrol Aircraft and ship-borne helicopters are also participating in this exercise.
SCO SUMMIT IN UZBEKISTAN
The 2022 Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) Summit will be organized in Uzbekistan from September 15 to 16, 2022.
The 2022 SCO Summit would be held in Samarkand – a city in Uzbekistan on the ancient trade route of the Silk Road that connects China with the Mediterranean.
The SCO summit in Uzbekistan would focus on reviewing the grouping’s activities over the past two decades and identifying areas having potential for multilateral cooperation.
The discussions would also focus on the geopolitical crisis caused by the Russian invasion of Ukraine and the situation in the Taliban-ruled Afghanistan. This is the first in-person summit since the 2019 SCO summit held in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.
This summit would witness the first in-person meeting between Prime Minister Modi and Chinese President Xi Jinping after their meeting at Brasilia on the side-lines of the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) in 2019.
INT. WATER ASSOCIATION'S WATER CONGRESS
The International Water Association’s World Water Congress and Exhibition was organized in Denmark from September 1 to 15.
The IWA World Water Congress & Exhibition is organized every few years across the world to bring together experts to share insights, network and do business.
It provides an opportunity to focus on current issues and trends and reflect on the strengths of the location in which the event is being organized.
The 2022 edition was organized in Copenhagen based on the theme ‘Water for Smart Liveable Cities’. It showcased the best practices in Denmark and other Nordic countries as well those from the rest of the world.
The latest edition is the largest and most comprehensive till date.
ARMENIA & AZERBAIJAN CLASH AT LACHIN CORRIDOR
More than 100 Armenian soldiers and 50 Azerbaijani soldiers have been killed during the recent clashes at the border.
The two former soviet republics have been engaged in long-running conflicts over the disputed territory of Nagorno-Karabakh region.
The disputed territory has been internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan but is currently under the control of Armenian separatists.
The recent clashes took place along the Lachin corridor that links Armenia to Nagorno-Karabakh.
The Lachin Corridor is part of the Lachin District of Azerbaijan, but was under the control of the Russian peacekeeping force as per the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh armistice agreement.
The Lachin District returned under the control of Azerbaijan on August 26, 2022. The recent clash is the deadline to break out between Armenia and Azerbaijan after the 2020 clashes.
SERIOUS FRAUD INVESTIGATION OFFICE (SFIO)
The Serious Frauds Investigation Office (SFIO) has arrested the alleged mastermind of a widespread racket involving the setting up of shell companies with Chinese links and supply of dummy directors.
SFIO was assigned by the government to investigate Jillian Consultants India Pvt Ltd and 32 other companies.
What is SFIO?
SFIO is a multi-disciplinary organization under the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, consisting of experts in the field of accountancy, forensic auditing, law, information technology, investigation, company law, capital market and taxation for detecting and prosecuting or recommending for prosecution white-collar crimes/frauds.
It has its head office in New Delhi. The Computer Forensic and Data Mining Laboratory (CFDML) was set up in 2013 to provide support and service to the officers of SFIO in their investigations.
WHAT IS 'OPERATION GEAR BOX'?
Recently, the Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI) launched operation ‘Gear Box’ to stop heroin smuggling, seizes 39.5 kg of contraband from Kolkata port.
The heroin was examined and seized under provisions of the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act.
What is Operation Gear Box?
Operation Gear Box is conducted to detect the hidden drugs in the gear boxes. The gears from old and used gearboxes were removed after opening them and plastic packets containing the narcotic substance were placed in the created cavity and the gearboxes were refitted to avoid detection.
The drug syndicate has used this unique modus operandi to conceal heroin. These packets were shipped concealing inside this metal scrap with other metal scrap so that it would go unnoticed by the authorities.
FIRST BANK TO ISSUE ELECTRONIC BANK GUARANTEE
The HDFC Bank, the largest private sector bank in India, became the first bank in the country to issue an Electronic Bank Guarantee (e-BG).
The HDFC bank recently launched the first-ever Electronic Bank Guarantee (e-BG) in collaboration with the National E-Governance Services Limited (NeSL).
e-BG removes the need for the paper-based time consuming process, which often takes 3 to 5 days for completion due to the need for physical pick up from the bank, delivery of courier to the beneficiary, stamping and reverification.
e-BG boosts efficiency and security, while enabling the beneficiary to instantly view a bank guarantee on the NeSL portal. The e-BG would be issued on the NeSL portal through an API-based digital workflow.
FIFA UNDER-17 WOMEN'S WORLD CUP 2022
The Union Cabinet has approved the signing for hosting the FIFA Under-17 Women’s World Cup 2022 in India.
The 2022 FIFA U-17 Women’s World Cup is the 7th edition of the FIFA U-17 Women’s World Cup.
It is scheduled to be held from October 11 to 30, 2022. The FIFA U-17 Women’s World Cup is held every two years. It has been organized by the Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) since 2008.
IMPORTANT DATES & DAYS
WORLD FIRST AID DAY OBSERVED ON 10TH SEPT.
World First Aid Day is celebrated every year on the second Saturday of September. This year, World First Aid Day 2022 falls on 10 September 2022.
The day is recognized worldwide to promote the significance of first aid, which is an important fundamental skill, and to create awareness on a global level about how it can save precious lives.
The day was introduced first by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC).
World First Aid Day 2022: Theme
According to the IFRC, with this year’s theme, ‘Lifelong First Aid’, we are putting forward the importance of having lifelong first aid learning. No matter the age, having first aid skills and knowledge helps create safer and healthier communities.
Children, adults, or older adults should also be able to have a quality first aid education. A lifelong commitment to learning and providing first aid is what makes us more resilient.
UN DAY FOR SOUTH-SOUTH COOPERATION
The United Nations Day for South-South Cooperation is observed annually on September 12 to highlight the importance of cooperation among people and countries in the global South.
The day also aims at spreading awareness on the social, economic, and political developments made in the Southern region.
What are the objectives of South-South Cooperation?
Foster and strengthen the self-reliance of developing countries by enhancing their creative capacity to find solutions and technological capacities to their development problems and formulate the requisite strategies to address them.
Promote and strengthen collective self-reliance among developing countries through the exchange of experiences leading to a greater awareness of common problems and wider access to available knowledge.
Recognize and respond to the problems and requirements of the least developed countries, landlocked developing countries, small island developing States and the countries most seriously affected by, for example, natural disasters and other crises, and enable them to achieve a greater degree of participation in international economic activities.
HINDI DIWAS OBSERVED ON SEPTEMBER 14TH
Hindi Diwas is observed every year on September 14 to commemorate the adoption of Hindi as the official language of India.
On September 14, 1949, the Constituent Assembly of India adopted Hindi as the official language along with English. Article 343 of the Indian Constitution recognizes Hindi in Devanagari script as the official language.
On the occasion of Hindi Diwas, the importance of Hindi is promoted and various cultural festivals are organized to celebrate and honour Hindi literature.
India’s first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru decided to create the Hindi Diwas on September 14, which coincides with the birth anniversary of Beohar Rajendra Simha, who played a major role in making Hindi India’s official language.
NATIONAL'S ENGINEER DAY: SEPTEMBER 15TH
The National Engineer’s Day is observed every year on September 15 every year to recognize and pay tribute to achievements of Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya.
Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya was born on September 15, 1861 in Karnataka. He is noted for setting up Mysore Soap Factory, Bangalore Agricultural University, State Bank of Mysore, Mysore Iron and Steel Works, Government Engineering College and several other industries.
He was the recipient of Bharat Ratna (India’s highest civilian award) and was recognized as the Knight Commander of the British Indian Empire.
He served as the Diwan of Mysore from 1912 to 1918. He is credited for the creation of block systems.
He patented and installed an irrigation system with water floodgates at a reservoir near Pune to increase storage capacity.
This irrigation system was later installed at the Khadakvasla Reservoir as well as at Tigra Dam at Gwalior and Krishnaraja Sagar Reservoir Dam in Mysore. Sir M Visvesvaraya is also known as the “precursor of economic planning in India”.
INTERNATIONAL DAY OF DEMOCRACY: SEPTEMBER 15TH
International Day of Democracy is observed every year on September 15 across the world to strengthen democracies and highlight their importance.
The International Day of Democracy 2022 focused on highlighting the key role played by media freedom in safeguarding democracy, maintaining peace and achieving 2030 Sustainable Development Goals.
It was observed with the theme “Protecting Press Freedom for Democracy”.
This is significant as, according to the UNESCO, 85 percent of the global population are experiencing a deterioration in press freedom in their country over the past five years.
Background: The International Day of Democracy was created after a resolution was passed by the UN General Assembly in the year 2007. This UNGA resolution sought to strengthen and consolidate democracy. The International Day of Democracy was celebrated for the first time in 2008.
WORLD PATIENT SAFETY DAY: SEPTEMBER 17TH
World Patient Safety Day observed on September 17, 2022.
The objective of the World Patient Safety Day is to raise global awareness about different safety measures that need to be taken to ensure patient safety.
It aims to increase public engagement in patient safety and create action plans to address issues that cause harm to patients.
On this occasion, patients, caregivers, doctors, healthcare workers, healthcare leaders and advocates take part in events that increase public awareness about patient-centric care and encourage patient safety at the international level.
The theme for this year is ‘Medication Safety’, with the slogan being ‘Medication without Harm’.
INT. DAT FOR PRESERVATION OF OZONE LAYER
World Ozone Day or the International Day for the preservation of the Ozone Layer is observed on the 16th of September. The day aims to create awareness about the importance and need of the Ozone layer which is the single protection on Earth against UV rays coming out from the sun.
The UN Environment Programme also aims to bring awareness about the importance of getting rid of the substances that damage the ozone layer. It also calls for taking time-targeted actions to protect Earth’s protective shield.
The theme announced by the UN Environment Programme for International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer 2022 is ‘Global Cooperation Protecting Life on Earth’.
The Montreal Protocol’s impact is recognized with this theme and brings to notice the need to act in collaboration, forge partnerships and develop global cooperation to address climate challenges and protect life on earth for future generations.
WORLD BAMBOO DAY 2022: 18TH SEPTEMBER
World Bamboo Day 2022 is observed on September 18 in order to raise awareness about the conservation of this extremely useful plant.
Conceptualised by the World Bamboo Organisation (WBO), this day also promotes the bamboo industry by highlighting its concerns.
Bamboo wood has long been used for various purposes in countries around the globe, especially in east and Southeast Asia. Bamboo grows on its and doesn’t require to be replanted, making it easily available.
By observing World Bamboo Day, WBO aims to sensitise people about the potential uses of bamboo. Promoting the new cultivation of bamboo in developing regions across the world can yield tremendous economic development.
In fact, bamboo can be used as a substitute for numerous unsustainable resources. Found in South-East Asia, bamboo can be used in various ways including as food, and as a substitute for wood, building, and construction material.
REPORTS & INDEXES
INDIA DISCRIMINATION REPORT: OXFAM 2022
The non-profit Oxfam India recently released the India Discrimination Report, 2022 Labour force participation rate (LFPR) of women in India is just 25 per cent in 2021 – less than the figure of 42.7 percent in 2004-05 and the lowest among the BRICS countries.
Gender discrimination is the main reason behind the 98 percent employment gap between males and females in India.
Lack of education and work experience are contributing to the lesser wage for women.
The average earning of a man is about 2.5 times that of a woman. The report concluded that, while there is a decline in discrimination within the Indian labour market over a decade, there still remains high gender inequality.
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
UAE TO LAUNCH ITS 1ST LUNAR ROVER
The UAE is expected to launch the Rashid rover in November this year aboard a Falcon 9 SpaceX rocket.
The United Arab Emirates will launch its first lunar rover named Rashid from Kennedy Space Centre in Florida in November 2022.
The rover would reach the Lunar surface aboard the Hakuto-R lander of Japan’s ispace sometime in March next year.
If this lunar mission is successful, the UAE and Japan will rank among the US, Russia and China as being the only countries to land a spacecraft on the lunar surface. Its destination is the Lacus Somniorum – the Lake of Dreams – situated close to the lunar equator.
The Rashid rover will study the lunar surface, mobility on the surface of the moon and how different surfaces interact with the particles on the moon.
About HAKUTO-R lander
The HAKUTO-R lander was built by the Japanese company ispace. The Rashid rover would be the first Moon trip for HAKUTO-R, which has been under development for more than 10 years.
1ST-EVER SCO TOURISM CAPITAL
The temple city of Varanasi was nominated as the first-ever SCO Tourism and Cultural Capital during the recently held SCO Summit.
During the 22nd Meeting of Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) Council of Heads of State held in Samarkand, Uzbekistan, Varanasi was nominated as the first-ever SCO Tourism and Cultural Capital for the period of 2022-23.
This would promote tourism, cultural and humanitarian exchanges between India and other SCO member states.
Under this framework, various events will be organized in Varanasi in 2022-23. These events bring together musicians, authors, scholars, Indologists and artists as well as other invited guests.
WHAT IS EXERCISE KAKADU 2022?
Exercise Kakadu 2022 commenced in Australia’s Darwin on September 12, 2022.
The Exercise Kakadu 2022 (KA22) is a multinational exercise hosted by the Australian Navy in Darwin – the capital of Australia’s Northern Territory.
It will be held from September 12 to 24 this year by the Royal Australian Navy with the support from the Royal Australian Air Force.
This two-week long biennial maritime exercise brings together around 3,000 personnel, 15 warships and more than 30 aircraft from 22 countries.
The Indian Navy is represented by INS Satpura and P8I Maritime Patrol Aircraft. The theme of this international exercise is ‘partnership, leadership and friendship’.
It would cover both the sea phase and the harbour phase. The harbour phase would witness participants being involved in operational planning interactions and supportive activities.
MILITARY STATION NAMED AFTER BIPIN RAWAT
A military station and a major road near the Lohit Valley on the Line of Actual Control (LAC) with China were recently named after the country’s first CDS General Bipin Rawat.
Kibithu is a small village on the banks of the Lohit Valley in the eastern part of India. Kibithu is considered an important place from a military and strategic point of view.
About General Bipin Rawat
He is an infantry officer from the 5/11 Gorkha Rifles. Prior to this appointment, he was the Vice Chief of the Army. He has held key appointments in the Army headquarters and with the UN peacekeeping force.
He hails from Uttarakhand and had received the ‘sword of honour’ when he passed out from the Indian Military Academy in 1978.