It gives us great pleasure to release the monthly edition of the PRAVAHINI – Monthly e-Compendium & Weekly e-Periodicals of Current Affairs. The magazine’s members have shown considerable cooperation as well as devotion. We at successmantra.in work tirelessly to create this magazine and bring it to you with a great sense of gratitude.
The PRAVAHINI September-2022 eBook covers the current events that happened in the month of September. Current Affairs is a crucial component of any competitive exams including CLAT, AILET, DU-LLB, HM, CAT, IAS, PCS, SSC, CUET, Banking, MBA and various other competitive examinations.
Current Affairs play the bigger role in many competitive and government exams. It holds the power of making or breaking your chance of success. Therefore, the candidates should cover the Current Affairs thoroughly and smartly.
The PRAVAHINI September-2022 eBook is divided into different sections keeping in mind the need of various exams. The sections covered namely International, National, Economy, Ecology and Environment, Science & Technology, Legal Affairs, Sports, States News Makers and few others.
We would also be pleased to receive any suggestion that could assist us with the upcoming editions.
Success Mantra (GTB Nagar, Delhi)
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
- National Affairs
- International Affairs
- Economic Affairs
- Important Dates
- Reports And Indexes
- Science & Technology
CRIMINAL PROCEDURE (IDENTIFICATION) ACT, 2022
The Home Affairs Ministry has notified the rules governing the implementation of the Criminal Procedure (Identification) Act, 2022.
The Criminal Procedure (Identification) Act, 2022 repeals the Identification of Prisoners Act, 1920, whose scope was limited to collecting finger impressions, footprint impressions and photographs of the convicted persons and certain categories of arrested and non-convicted persons based on the order from the Magistrate.
The new law enables police and central investigating agencies to collect, store, analyse physical and biological samples like retina and iris scans of arrested individuals.
The rules do not mention the procedure for convicted persons. Measurements of individuals detained under preventive detention laws should not be taken unless they are associated with a serious offence or ordered by a court.
Measurements here include finger-impressions, palm-print, foot-print, photographs, iris and retina scan, physical, biological samples and their analysis, behavioural attributes including signatures, handwriting or any other examination. They are mentioned in Section 53 and Section 53A of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1974.
INDIAN NAVY DECOMMISSIONED INS AJAY
INS Ajay was decommissioned after rendering 32 years of service to the nation. The decommissioning of INS Ajay was conducted at Naval Dockyard, Mumbai in the traditional manner.
The national flag, naval ensign, and the decommissioned pennant of the ship were lowered for the last time at sunset, signifying the end of the ship’s commissioned service.
The chief guest for the function was Vice Admiral Ajendra Bahadur Singh, Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Western Naval Command. The guest of Honour was Vice Admiral AG Thapliyal AVSM Bar (Retd), the first commanding officer of the ship.
INS Ajay was commissioned on 24th January 1990 at Poti, Georgia in the erstwhile USSR, and was part of the 23rd Patrol Vessel Squadron under the operation control of Flag Officer Commanding, Maharashtra.
The INS Ajay was in active naval service for more than 32 years during her illustrious journey. INS Ajay has participated in several naval operations including Op Talwar during Kargil War and Op Parakram in 2001.
ORGANISATION ON THE LINES OF NITI AAYOG
The state’s deputy chief minister, Devendra Fadnavis, revealed in a meeting that the Maharashtra government intends to create an organisation along the lines of Niti Aayog.
The organisation would be in charge of doing thorough data analysis and coming to informed choices about various state sectors.
The Chief Minister of Maharashtra met with representatives from NITI Aayog to discuss a number of issues, including asset monetisation and blockchain in agriculture.
The discussion covered topics in the meeting are: alternative fuels, electric automobiles, drone healthcare, agribusiness including others.
Devendra Fadnavis used the circumstance where the first department has information on a disease outbreak and another department has information on contaminated water as an example. He said that if the two departments shared data, things would be much simpler.
DRAFT INDIAN TELECOMMUNICATION BILL, 2022
Draft Indian Telecommunications Bill, 2022 was unveiled recently by the Department of Telecommunications for stakeholders’ comments.
The objective of the draft bill is to consolidate and make changes to existing laws for the development, expansion and operation of telecommunication services, telecom networks and infrastructure in India. It merges three Acts that govern the Indian telecom sector.
They are Indian Telegraph Act 1885, Indian Wireless Telegraphy Act 1933, and The Telegraph Wires, (Unlawful Protection) Act 1950.
The draft bill proposes to include over-the-top (OTT) communication services like WhatsApp, Signal and Telegram under the definition of telecommunication services.
This means that OTT communication services will be subjected to rules followed by telecom operators, which forces operators to incur high costs of licensing and spectrum. Currently, OTT players are providing free services due to the lack of this provision.
WHAT IS SRESTHA GUJARAT PROJECT?
USD 350 million in aid has been approved by the World Bank for the “Systems Reform Endeavors for Transformed Health Achievement” in Gujarat or the SRESTHA-G project.
This project will be costing USD 500 million and the World Bank is providing USD 350 million to support this project and the rest will be borne by the state government.
The funding is provided by the International Bank of Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), with a maturity of 18 years, including a grace period of 5.5 years.
What is the key focus area of this project?
This project aims on transforming key health delivery systems in Gujarat. This programme will also be focusing on the key areas of improving equity, quality, and inclusiveness of primary healthcare services for all adolescent girls in the state.
DAULATABAD FORT RENAMED TO 'DEVGIRI FORT'
Maharashtra Tourism Ministry has decided to rename the Daulatabad fort to Devgiri which is located near Aurangabad.
It is a national heritage monument, which is maintained by the Archeological Survey of India (ASI). Previously Maharashtra’s former Chief Minister Uddhav Thackeray was renamed Aurangabad Sambhajinagar.
The decision of renaming Daulatabad fort to Devgiri came after Shiv Sena chief Uddhav Thackeray renamed Aurangabad to Sambhajinagar after a long demand from Sena Foot Soldiers.
About Daulatabad Fort
Daulatpur Fort is a historic fortified citadel located in Devagiri Village near Aurangabad, Maharashtra. It was earlier the capital of the Yadava Dynasty for a brief time the capital of the Delhi Sultanate.
The fort was renamed Daulatabad by Mohammed Tughlaq in the 14th century who understood its Importance as a base for military operations in southern India and conceived the Idea of making it his capital.
The fort was later known as Qubbatul Islam and coins were minted with this name.
WHAT IS OPERATION MEGH CHAKRA?
The CBI launched the Operation Megh Chakra to combat the spread of Child Sexual Abuse Materials online.
The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) launched Operation Megh Chakra on September 24, 2022 to conduct searches at 56 locations across India as part of a nationwide drive against the circulation and sharing of child sexual abuse material (CSAM).
This operation was launched after the CBI received intelligence from Interpol’s Singapore special unit based on the information received from authorities in New Zealand.
The CBI has filed two cases accusing that large number of Indian nationals of being involved in online circulation, downloading and transmission of CSAM using cloud-based storage.
The searches were conducted in Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Goa, Karnataka, Telangana, Tamil Nadu and others.
KEY POINTS ABOUT AMBEDKAR CIRCUIT
Recently, the Central government announced a special tourist circuit named Ambedkar circuit, which encompasses five key sites associated with Dr B.R. Ambedkar.
The government had first proposed the Ambedkar Circuit, or Panchteerth, in 2016, but the conceptualisation of the plan could be held recently.
The five cities in the tourist circuit as announced by the government are:
Janma Bhoomi- Ambedkar’s birthplace in Madhya Pradesh’s Mhow.
Shiksha Bhoomi- the place in London where he stayed while studying in the UK.
Deeksha Bhoomi- the place in Nagpur where he embraced Buddhism.
Mahaparinirvan Bhoomi- the place of his demise in Delhi.
Chaitya Bhoomi- the place of his cremation is in Mumbai.
CENTRAL GOVT. LAUNCHED SIGN LEARN
The Central Government has launched Sign Learn to make Indian Sign Language usage more widespread.
Sign Learn is a mobile application-based Indian Sign Language Dictionary having 10,000 words. The application was launched by the Minister of State for Social Justice and Empowerment Pratima Bhoumik.
It was developed based on the Indian Sign Language Dictionary of the Indian Sign Language Research And Training Centre (ISLRTC).
In the application, all the words can be searched either in Hindi or English. The purpose of this mobile application is to make Indian Sign Language (ISL) more accessible for the general public.
All sign videos in the application can be shared via social media. It was launched on the occasion of Sign Language Day.
WHAT IS PM-GKAY SCHEME?
The PM-GKAY scheme has been extended for 3 more months until the end of December 2022. This scheme was scheduled to end on September 30.
The decision to extend this scheme comes ahead of the festive season. The government will distribute 122 lakh metric tonnes of food grains under the seventh phase of this scheme from October to December 2022.
In March 2020, during the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, the central government had announced the Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Anna Yojana (PMGKAY) welfare scheme.
Initially, the scheme was planned for a period of 3 months but since then, it has been extended several times.
SKILL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA
Recently, the Union Skill Development and Entrepreneurship Minister inaugurated the 13th Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry (FICCI) Global Skills Summit 2022.
Theme: Education to Employability - Making It Happen.
What is FICCI?
It's a non-government, not-for-profit organisation, Established in 1927, it is the largest and oldest apex business organisation in India. It provides a platform for networking and consensus building within and across sectors and is the first port of call for Indian industry, policymakers and the international business community.
What is the Status of Skill Development in India?
The 2015 Report on National Policy on Skill Development and Entrepreneurship estimated that only 4.7% of the total workforce in India had undergone formal skill training compared with 52% in the US, 80% in Japan, and 96% in South Korea.
A skill gap study conducted by the National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) over 2010-2014 indicated an additional net incremental requirement of 10.97 crores of skilled manpower in 24 key sectors by 2022. In addition, the 29.82 crore farm and nonfarm sector workforce needed to be skilled, reskilled, and upskilled.
CENTRAL GOVT. BANNED POPULAR FRONT OF INDIA
The Central Government has banned the Popular Front of India for 5 years.
The Union Ministry of Home Affairs has banned the Popular Front of India (PFI) and its associations under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act for their links with terrorist groups and subversive activities.
The ban was imposed based on the recommendations from the state governments of Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka and Gujarat.
Now, the PFI has joined the LeT, JeM, al Qaida, SIMI and other extremist groups on the “banned” list. 8 organizations that are operating as affiliates to the PFI have also been banned.
What is PFI?
The PFI was founded in 2007 as a result of the merger of the three Muslim organizations – the National Democratic Front (NDF) in Kerala, the Karnataka Forum for Dignity and the Manitha Neethi Pasarai in Tamil Nadu.
It was founded by members of the banned Students’ Islamic Movement of India (SIMI). It was created after the SIMI was banned by the Indian Government in 2001.
Its works are similar to that of Hindu right-wing outfits groups Vishva Hindu Parishad (VHP) and the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS). It was involved in the social work for Muslims as well as for the marginalized, minorities and Scheduled Caste communities.
MAHESHWAR HYDROELECTRIC PROJECT: NARMADA DAM
The Madhya Pradesh government has canceled all contracts with Maheshwar Hydroelectric Project almost three decades after it agreed to purchase power from it.
It has been canceled due to its poor financial track record, several irregularities and graft allegations and caused the submergence of 61 villages.
The Maheshwar dam is one of the large dams of the Narmada Valley Development Project, which envisages the construction of 30 large and 135 smaller dams in the Narmada valley.
What are the Key Points of Narmada River?
Narmada is the largest west flowing river of the peninsular region flowing through a rift valley between the Vindhya Range on the north and the Satpura Range on the south.
Narmada is flowing through the area where the land is not sloping towards the west from central India, but it is flowing west because of the rift valleys only. It rises from Maikala range near Amarkantak in Madhya Pradesh.
It drains a large area in Madhya Pradesh besides some areas in the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat. The river near Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh) forms the DhuanDhar Falls. There are several islands in the estuary of Narmada of which Aliabet is the largest.
ARMED FORCES SPECIAL POWERS ACT (AFSPA)
Recently, the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) has extended the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act (AFSPA) in parts of Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland for another six months.
What is the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act (AFSPA)?
Background: A reincarnation of the British-era legislation that was enacted to quell the protests during the Quit India movement, the AFSPA was issued by way of four ordinances in 1947.
The ordinances were replaced by an Act in 1948 and the present law effective in the Northeast was introduced in Parliament in 1958 by the then Home Minister, G.B. Pant. It was known initially as the Armed Forces (Assam and Manipur) Special Powers Act, 1958.
After the States of Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Mizoram, and Nagaland came into being, the Act was adapted to apply to these States as well.
KERALA DRAFT INDUSTRIAL POLICY
Kerala recently unveiled a draft industrial policy.
The new industrial policy would be released in January 2023 and it will be effective from April 1 of the same year.
The draft industrial policy focuses on upgradation of skills required for the jobs of future industries and technologies of the Industrial Revolution 4.0 and promotion of sustainable and responsible investments.
Its priority sectors are artificial intelligence, graphene, space sector, Ayurveda, biotechnology, designing, electronic system design and manufacturing, electric vehicles, engineering and research and development and food technology.
Other areas of focus include high-tech farming, high value-added rubber products, logistics, medical equipment, nanotechnology, renewable energy, retail, robotics, tourism and hospitality, 3D printing and marine cluster.
G4 COUNTRIES REITERATES UNSC REFORMS
The G4 grouping comprising India, Japan, Germany and Brazil expressed their concern over lack of any “meaningful” forward movement on long-pending reform of the UN Security Council (UNSC) and demanded “urgency” on the issue.
The foreign ministers of the G4 countries held a virtual meeting coinciding with the 75th session of the UN General Assembly during which they held extensive discussion on the need for urgent reform of the UNSC.
A joint press statement said the ministers highlighted the urgency of reforming the UN and updating its main decision-making bodies, in order to better reflect contemporary realities.
What They Said: “G4 Ministers expressed disappointment at attempts to derail this process and committed to addressing the issue in a meaningful way and with increased urgency at this 75th anniversary of the UN,” the statement released by the external affairs ministry said.
The meeting was attended by External Affairs Minister S Jaishankar, Brazilian Foreign Minister Ernesto Arajo, Japan’s Motegi Toshimitsu and Minister of State at German Foreign Office Niels Annen.
77TH SESSION OF UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY
The 77th session of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA77) opened on September 13 and will include a high-level debate organized from September 20 to 26 this year.
The theme of the UNGA 77 is “A watershed moment: transformative solutions to interlocking challenges”.
The theme recognizes the shared roots of global crises like COVID-19, climate change and conflict and highlights the importance of building global sustainability and resilience.
The event is being organized at the UN Headquarters in New York. Discussions will be held among the world leaders on the crisis in Ukraine, climate change, food security, access to education and gender equality.
All 193 UN members will be represented at this event. Brazil will be the first UN member state to speak at the annual general debate. It has remained the first speaker for nearly 7 decades since the 10th UNGA in 1955.
WHAT IS ASIAN PALM OIL ALLIANCE?
Asian Palm Oil Alliance (APOA) was formed at the Globoil Summit organized in Agra on September 21. The APOA brings together the apex edible oil industry associations from India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Nepal, which are the major importers of palm oil.
Atul Chaturvedi, Director of Adani Wilmar Ltd and President of SEA, was elected as the first chairman of the alliance during the first general body meeting.
The secretariat of the APOA would initially be managed by the Solvent Extractors’ Association of India (SEA).
The newly formed alliance would protect the economic and business interests of palm oil importing countries and create a level playing field for all fats and oils used in food, feed and oleo-chemicals in Asia.
CONTROVERSY OVER NEPAL CITIZENSHIP ACT
Recently, the president of Nepal sent back the bill to amend the Citizenship Act, 2006 to the lower house of the Nepal Parliament for reconsideration. After the fall of the monarchy and the transition of Nepal into democracy in 2006, there was the emergence of the multiparty system followed by the adoption of a constitution in 2015.
Due to this, all-Nepalese citizens born before the adoption of the constitution got naturalised citizenship. But their children remained without citizenship as that was to be guided by a federal law that has not yet been framed.
The recent amendment is expected to pave the way to citizenship for many stateless youths and their parents.
FIRST FEMALE PRIME MINISTER OF ITALY
Giorgia Meloni is set to become the first female prime minister of Italy.
Giorgia Meloni, the leader of the far-right political party Brothers of Italy, is set to become the first female premier of Italy.
The recent vote to the political party with neo-fascist origins brings in the most right-wing government Italy has witnessed since the Second World War and the fascist leader Benito Mussolini.
The recent near-final results of the Italian elections revealed that the right-wing coalition won 44 per cent of the parliamentary vote, with Meloni’s party making its biggest win of 26 per cent.
GLOBAL METHANE PLEDGE
Global Methane, Climate and Clean Air (GMCCA) Forum 2022 is being held in Washington, DC, USA to discuss opportunities to protect the climate and improve air quality with a special focus on methane by adhering to the Global Methane Pledge.
What is the Agenda of the Forum?
The Forum is a joint event sponsored by the Global Methane Initiative (GMI) and the UNEP-convened Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC).
GMI is an international public-private partnership focused on reducing barriers to the recovery and use of methane as a clean energy source. It provides technical support to deploy methane-to-energy projects around the world that enable Partner Countries to launch methane recovery and use projects.
India is a partner country of GMI. High-level plenary sessions will be held on global efforts to reduce methane and other short-lived climate pollutants.
What is the Global Methane Pledge?
About: The Global Methane Pledge was launched at COP (Conference of Parties) 26 in November 2021 to catalyse action to reduce methane emissions. It was led by the United States and the European Union. It has 111 country participants who together are responsible for 45% of global human-caused methane emissions.
India, which is not a part of the Global Methane Pledge, is among the top five methane emitters globally. Most emissions can be traced back to agriculture.
ICAO JOINS INTERNATIONAL SOLAR ALLIANCE
Recently, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the International Solar Alliance (ISA) during the 42nd session of ICAO Assembly in Montreal, Canada.
Cochin International Airport in India became the world’s first fully Solar powered airport in the world in 2015.
What is the MoU About?
The MoU carries forward the legacy of ISA. The event marks a new beginning for solar energy use in the global civil aviation sector.
It will enable the solarization of the aviation sector across all Member States of ISA. It aims to check the growth of CO2 emissions in the Aviation sector, leading to India’s Net Zero Targets. It will work towards providing information, providing advocacy, capacity building and demonstration projects.
RUPEE TOUCHED ALL TIME LOW
The rupee plunged by 83 paise — its biggest single-day loss in nearly seven months — touched an all-time low of 80.79 against the US dollar.
The rupee touched the psychological level of 80 per dollar, but closed just below that mark at 79.98, amid foreign fund outflows and the rise in crude oil prices.
The rupee had opened strong at 79.75 but fell again towards the 80 level, this time on the back of a supportive range from crude as Brent breached the $100 per barrel on less chance of recession in the US, said Jateen Trivedi, VP–research analyst at LKP Securities.
“The rupee keeps taking resistance every time it rises towards the 20-day moving average. The rupee range can be seen between 79.75-80.50,” he added.
WHAT IS 'ETHEREUM MERGE'?
Ethereum – the world’s second largest blockchain – has transitioned from the legacy “proof-of-work” to a “proof-of-stake” consensus mechanism.
The Ethereum Merge is an upgrade that changes how new crypto transactions take place on the blockchain. The Ethereum Merge is the joining of Ethereum's proof-of-stake (PoS) Beacon Chain with the Ethereum Mainnet.
Before this update, Ethereum operated on a proof-of-work mode, which required nodes (computers that are part of a large network) to compete with one another to solve complex math problems.
The successful ones are able to mine the next block of a transaction and create new coins.
Through this method, crypto consumed power that is nearly equivalent to that of Finland, while its carbon footprint is almost comparable to Switzerland.
The proof-of-stake model does not require the need for mining nodes to compete for block rewards. Rather, it requires node operators to stake 32 Ether (ETH) as collateral to become network validators to earn rewards.
LT. GENERAL ANIL CHAUHAN APPOINTED AS CDS
Lt. General Anil Chauhan was appointed as the Chief of Defence Staff (CDS).
The Central Government appointed the former Eastern Army Commander Lt. General Anil Chauhan (retired) as the new Chief of Defence Staff (CDS).
The post of Chief of Defence Staff was vacant for over 9 months since the death of the first CDS Gen. Bipin Rawat lost his life in a helicopter crash in December 2021.
General Anil Chauhan has over 40 years’ experience as he held several key command, staff and instrumental appointments..He was involved in counter-insurgency operations in Jammu and Kashmir and Northeast India.
Lt Gen Chauhan was an alumnus of the National Defence Academy, Khadakwasla and Indian Military Academy, Dehradun. He served as part of the 11th Gorkha Rifles of the Indian Army.
AWARDS & HONOURS
SWATI PIRAMAL: HIGHEST CIVILIAN ORDER OF FRANCE
Swati Piramal, Vice Chairperson, Piramal Group has been conferred the Chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur (Knight of the Legion of Honour).
The highest French civilian award comes in recognition of Piramal’s outstanding achievements and contribution in the fields of business and industry, science, medicine, art and culture, both nationally and internationally.
The award was presented to her by H.E. Catherine Colonna, Minister for Europe and Foreign Affairs of France on behalf of President Emmanuel Macron. In 2006, she was also awarded the Chevalier de l’Ordre National du Mérite (Knight of the Order of Merit), France’s second highest civilian honour.
Swati Piramal is also a recipient of the Padma Shri, one of the highest civilian honours of India, as a champion of developing frameworks and policies to support women in leadership roles.
About Dr Swati Piramal: She is an Indian scientist and industrialist and is involved in healthcare, focusing on public health and innovation.
REC LIMITED ACCORDED 'MAHARATNA STATUS'
The REC Ltd. has been accorded the status of ‘Maharatna’ Central Public Sector Enterprise. The REC Ltd. is the 12th company to be given the Maharatna Status. The Maharatna status provides the state-run company’s board more power while making financial decisions.
The board of a Maharatna Central Public Sector Enterprise can make equity investments to be involved in financial joint ventures and wholly-owned subsidiaries and undertake mergers and acquisitions in India and abroad.
This power is limited to a ceiling of 15 percent of the net worth of CPSE concerned, limited to Rs.5,000 crore in one project. The board can also structure and implement schemes related to personnel and human resource management and training.
What is Maharatna Status?
Introduced in 2010, the Maharatna status is given to the CPSEs by the Central Government to make these enterprises global giants.
This status is granted to CPSE that recorded more than Rs. 5,000 crore of net profit for three consecutive years, an average annual turnover of Rs.25,000 crore for three years and recording an average net worth of Rs.15,000 crore for three years. It should also have footing in the international market and be listed on an Indian stock exchange.
IMPORTANT DAYS AND DATES
INTERNATIONAL DAY OF PEACE: SEPTEMBER 21
September 21 is observed as the International Day of Peace.
The International Day of Peace is observed to strengthen the ideals of peace through the observance of 24-hours of non-violence and ceasefire. Its main objective is to create a world where compassion and empathy overcome suspicion and hatred. The theme for 2022 is “End racism. Build peace.”
It aims to eradicate racism and put an end to race-based discrimination. It highlights the plights faced by people who were displaced by conflicts because of racism.
It also recognized the issues faced by certain racial groups during the COVID-19 pandemic and the effect on certain races during the economic crisis.
This year, International Day of Peace was observed on September 16, 2022 at the UN Headquarters in New York. The programme commenced with the traditional Peace Bell Ceremony at the Peace Garden.
WORLD RHINO DAY OBSERVED ON 22ND SEPTEMBER
World Rhino Day is observed on 22nd September to spread awareness about the different Rhinoceros species and the dangers they face.
This day also celebrates all five rhino species namely the Sumatran, Black, Greater One-horned, Javan, and White rhino species. The day offers NGOs, zoos, and the general public a chance to honour rhinos in their own special ways.
This day aims to spread the importance of protecting these animals, as Rhinoceros have become critically endangered in the wild due to ongoing poaching and habitat loss over many years.
This year’s World Rhino Day will be observed under the theme “Five Rhino Species forever”. The goals of this day are to promote the noble cause of raising awareness about the need to save rhinos from danger to their lives. The rhinos are constantly under severe threat.
WORLD ALZHEIMER'S DAY OBSERVED ON 21ST SEPTEMBER
World Alzheimer’s Day is observed annually on September 21 to raise awareness about neurological disorders. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia and affects the person’s memory, mental ability, and ability to carry out simple tasks.
On World Alzheimer’s Day, healthcare organisations support Alzheimer’s walks while seminars and public activities are held in communities around the globe to raise awareness on Alzheimer’s.
This year’s theme for World Alzheimer’s Month is ‘Know Dementia, know Alzheimer’s’. It is in continuation with last year’s campaign which focused on warning signs and diagnosis of dementia and also the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the dementia community around the world.
However, this year, special emphasis will be laid on post-diagnosis support for dementia.
INTERNATIONAL DAY OF SIGN LANGUAGES
The International Day of Sign Languages (IDSL) is celebrated annually across the world on 23 September. The day is a unique opportunity to support and protect the linguistic identity and cultural diversity of all deaf people and other sign language users.
Sign language gives people, who are hard of hearing, a medium to converse. As the name suggests, this day aims to spread awareness regarding the importance of sign language in the realisation of the human rights of people who are deaf.
The theme for the 2022 International Day of Sign languages is “Sign Languages Unite Us!”
Deaf communities, governments and civil society organisations maintain their collective efforts in fostering, promoting and recognising national sign languages as part of their countries’ vibrant and diverse linguistic landscapes.
INT. DAY FOR TOTAL ELIMINATION OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS
The International Day for the Total Elimination of Nuclear Weapons is observed on September 26. The International Day for the Total Elimination of Nuclear Weapons is observed to increase public awareness about the threat of nuclear weapons and the importance of their total elimination.
It provides the opportunity to educate the general public and governments about the positive outcomes of eliminating the weapons of mass destruction and the social and economic costs of maintaining them.
The aim is to achieve total elimination of nuclear weapons, which is one of the oldest goals of the United Nations.
The day involves UNGA member states, civil societies, academia, parliamentarians, mass media and individuals creating awareness about the adverse impact of nuclear weapons.
WORLD ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH DAY
World Environmental Health Day 2022 is observed annually on September 26 to spread awareness globally regarding the health of the environment. The central idea behind celebrating this day is that the health of the human race is irrevocably intertwined with the health of the environment.
What are the Key Highlights of World Environmental Health Day?
History: The day was first observed by the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) in the year 2011. The main aim is the well-being of people across the globe. The IFEH is wholly dedicated to the development and dissemination of knowledge on the protection and subsequent improvement of environmental health.
Theme: The theme for this year is ‘Strengthening Environmental Health Systems for the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals.’
WORLD RABIES DAY OBSERVED ON 28TH SEPTEMBER
World Rabies Day is observed every year on 28th September to raise awareness about the world’s deadliest infectious disease and bring together partners to enhance prevention and control efforts worldwide.
2022 marks the 16th World Rabies Day.
What do we need to know about World Rabies Day?
28th September marks the anniversary of Louis Pasteur's death, the French chemist and microbiologist, who developed the first rabies vaccine. In 2007, the first World Rabies Day (WRD) was organised by the two founding partners namely:
Alliance for Rabies Control (ARC)
Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta (CDC)
Theme 2022: The theme of World Rabies Day 2022 is: “One Health, Zero Death”.
WORLD HEART DAY OBSERVED ON 29TH SEPTEMBER
World Heart Day is observed on September 29.
World Heart Day is observed across the globe to raise awareness about the growing concerns regarding heart health, cardiovascular illnesses, the adverse effects of over-exercising on the heart etc.
It also highlights the importance of heart care and its positive outcome on health. The theme for World Heart Day 2022 is “Use Heart for Every Heart”.
The phrase “use heart” means to think differently, make the right choice and act with courage to improve heart health and “for every heart” means to serve others suffering from heart ailments. The theme aims to bring the global community together to fight cardiovascular diseases.
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
PERSEVERANCE ROVER FOUND ORGANIC MATTER ON MARS
The Perseverance Rover has collected samples having high concentration of organic matter from the Martian surface.
The Perseverance Rover has collected several organic rock samples from an ancient river delta on Mars.
These samples are currently stored for collection by future Mars missions that would return them back to the Earth. These rock samples have a large concentration of organic matter, the highest concentration since the start of the mission.
With the latest collection, the rover has now collected a total of 12 samples. One of the rocks the Perseverance collected was nicknamed as Wildcat Ridge. This rock was likely formed when mud and sand settled in a saltwater lake as it evaporated billions of years ago.
An instrument aboard the rover called SHERLOC (Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman & Luminescence for Organics & Chemicals) found that these samples contain a class of organic molecules that correlate with those of sulfate minerals.
WHAT IS ROHINI SOUNDING ROCKET?
The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is planning the 200th successful launch of the Rohini RH-200 sounding rocket in a row. RH-200 of the Rohini sounding rocket family has completed 198 consecutive successful flights.
The 199th launch will happen in October 2022 during the World Space Week (4th-10th October) celebrations.
What are the Sounding Rockets?
Sounding rockets are one or two stage solid propellant rockets used for probing the upper atmospheric regions and for space research. Sounding rockets take their name from the nautical term "to sound," which means to take measurements.
They also serve as easily affordable platforms to test or prove prototypes of new components or subsystems intended for use in launch vehicles and satellites.
History: The Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) was established on 21st November 1963. Its southern tip is close to earth's magnetic equator. The launch of the first sounding rocket (American Nike-Apache) from Thumba in 1963 marked the beginning of the Indian Space Programme and was the bedrock of all the vehicles built.
VERY SHORT RANGE AIR DEFENCE SYSTEM
Recently, Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) conducted two successful test flight of Very Short Range Air Defence System (VSHORADS) missile from a ground based portable launcher at the Integrated Test Range, Chandipur, off the coast of Odisha.
Both the flight tests have completely met the mission objectives.
What are VSHORADS?
Very Short-Range Air Defence System (VSHORADS) is a Man Portable Air Defence System (MANPAD) designed and developed indigenously by DRDO’s Research Centre Imarat (RCI), Hyderabad in collaboration with other DRDO laboratories and Indian Industry Partners.
Design: VSHORADS missile incorporates many novel technologies including miniaturized Reaction Control System (RCS) and integrated avionics, which have been successfully proven during the tests.
DRDO SUCCESSFULLY TEST-FIRED VSHORADS MISSILE
The VSHORADS missile has been successfully tested at the Integrated Test Range in Chandipur, Odisha.
The Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) conducted two successful tests of the Very Short Range Air Defence System (VSHORADS) missile in Odisha recently.
The VSHORADS is a man portable air defence system (MANPADS) designed and developed by DRDO in collaboration with the Indian industry partners.
It was developed by DRDO’s Hyderabad-based Research Centre Imarat (RCI) along with other DRDO facilities and private entities.
WORLD’S 1ST CHEETAH REHABILITATION PROJECT
Prime Minister Narendra Modi has released wild Cheetahs in Kuno National Park and launched the world’s first Cheetah Rehabilitation Project.
Cheetahs which have been brought from Namibia is being introduced in India under Project Cheetah, which is the world’s first inter-continental large wild carnivore translocation project.
The release of wild Cheetahs by the Prime Minister is part of his efforts to revitalise and diversify India’s wildlife and its habitat.
Cheetah Rehabilitation Project:
The cheetah was declared extinct from India in 1952. The Cheetahs will help restore open forest and grassland ecosystems in India. This effort, in line with the Prime Minister’s commitment to environmental protection and wildlife conservation, will also lead to enhanced livelihood opportunities for the local community through eco-development and ecotourism activities.
WORLD'S 1ST CLONED WILD ARCTIC WOLF
A wild Arctic wolf was successfully cloned for the first time in the world by a Beijing-based gene firm.
The cloning of the Arctic wolf, also known as the white wolf or polar wolf, which is native to the High Arctic tundra of Canada’s Queen Elizabeth Islands, is considered a milestone achievement in conserving rare and endangered species through cloning technology.
According to the company, the wolf named “Maya” is in good health. The donor cell of the wolf came from the skin sample of a wild female Arctic wolf and its oocyte was taken from a female dog.
Cloning, the process of creating copies of living organisms, including cells, tissues, etc, was first used to create an animal in 1996 by a Scottish scientist. The animal, a sheep named Dolly, was made using an udder cell from an adult sheep.
WHAT IS COMBINED MARITIME FORCES?
Recently, INS Sunayna arrived in Port Victoria, Seychelles to participate in the annual training exercise Operation Southern Readiness of Combined Maritime Forces (CMF).
This not only reinforces the Indian Navy's commitment to maritime security in the Indian Ocean Region but also marks the maiden participation of an Indian Navy ship in the CMF exercise.
What do we know about Combined Maritime Forces (CMF)?
It is a multinational maritime partnership, which exists to uphold the Rules-Based International Order (RBIO) by countering illicit non-state actors on the high seas and promoting security, stability, and prosperity across approximately 3.2 million square miles of international waters, which encompass some of the world’s most important shipping lanes. CMF is Commanded by the U.S. Navy Vice Admiral.
LIVE STREAMING OF COURT’S PROCEEDINGS
For the first time, India’s apex court livestreamed the three separate constitutional bench proceedings simultaneously on YouTube.
More than 8 lakh people viewed the proceedings before the three Constitution Benches.
The cases heard by these benches are the challenge to 10 per cent quota for economically weaker sections of the society, the scuffle between Maharashtra Chief Minister Shinde’s faction and the Uddhav Thckeray camp over who was the “real” Shiv Sena Party and the challenge to the All India Bar Examination post enrollment for lawyers.
This initiative aims to bring the judiciary close to the citizens living across India, especially the important hearings having constitutional significance.
The initiative was the result of the meeting of the Supreme Court Judges on September 20. In the future, the apex court would use a dedicated platform for livestreaming the hearings.