India is the 7th largest country in the world in terms of area and 2nd largest in terms of population (after China). It has 29 states and 7 union territories.
India is bound by the Indian Ocean in the South, by Arabian Sea in the south-west and Bay of Bengal in the south-east. The territorial waters of India extend upto a distance of 12 nautical miles. The southernmost point of India is Indira Point in Andaman and Nicobal Islands which got submerged under the sea in 2004 Tsunami. The southernmost point of the Indian peninsula is Kanyakumari.
Greenwich Mean Time is based on the local line of the meridian passing through Greenwich near London. Indian Standard Time (IST) is 5 hours 30 minutes ahead of the Greenwich mean time.

Important Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Parks

Wildlife Sanctuary State
Dachigam Sanctuary Kashmir
Kaziranga National Park Assam
Periyar Sanctuary Kerala
Gir Forest Gujarat
Shikari Devi Sanctuary  Himachal Pradesh
Sariska Sanctuary Rajasthan
Corbett National Park Uttarakhand


Atmosphere is a vast envelop of air that surrounds the earth. The main constituents of air in the atmosphere are Nitrogen (78 percent), Oxygen (21 percent), carbon dioxide, argon etc. The atmosphere of the earth is comprised of four layers.
  1. Troposphere – The layer nearest to earth’s surface. The average height is 18 km over equator and 8km over the poles. The temperature decreases by 1 degree for every 165 metres of ascent.
  2. Stratosphere – Ozone layer is present in the stratosphere. The airplanes fly in this layer of the atmosphere.
  3. Mesosphere – It extends upto a height of 80 km over the stratosphere.
  4. Ionosphere – Radiowaves transmitted from the earth are reflected back to the earth by Ionosphere. The middle region is called thermosphere and the outer layer is called exosphere which gradually merges with outer space.

Important Facts about the Solar System

  1. Mercury- Closest planet to the sun
  2. Venus – Brightest object in the sky after the sun and the moon. Unlike other planets, it rotates backwards on its axis.
  3. Jupiter – Largest planet of the solar system. With 63 satellites, it is also the planet with the maximum number of satellites.
  4. Saturn – The most distinctive feature of Saturn is its system of rings. After Jupiter, it has the second highest number of satellites (47 satellites).
  5. Uranus – It was discovered by William Herschel.
  6. Neptune – It was discovered by J G Galle.
  7. Promixa Centauri – After sun, this is the closest star to the earth.
  8. Moon takes 27 days, 7 hours and 43 minutes to finish one revolution of the earth.
  9. Light from the sun takes nearly 8 minutes to reach the earth’s surface.


Important Facts

  • Suez Canal was opened in Egypt in 1869 and it connects the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea.
  • Nile river (Egypt) is the longer river in the world.
  • Baikal lake (Russia) is the deepest lake in the world.
  • Mount Everest (Nepal) is the highest peak in the world. K2 / Godwin Austen is the highest peak of India and the second highest peak in the world after Mt. Everest.

Countries and their nicknames

Nicknames  Countries/ Rivers/ Cities
Battlefield of Europe, Cockpit of Europe, Workshop of Europe Belgium
Dairy of Northern Europe Denmark
City of Seven Hills Rome
City of the Golden Gate  San Francisco
Forbidden City  Lhasa / Tibet
Island of Pearls Bahrain
Island of Cloves Madagascar
Key to the Mediterranean Gibraltar
Land of the Golden Fleece Australia
Land of the Midnight Sun Norway
Land of the Rising Sun Japan
Land of a Thousand Lakes Finland
Land of White Elephants Thailand
Pearl of Antilles Cuba
Playground of Europe Switzerland
The Saw Mill of Europe Sweden
Sorrow of China  River Hwang Ho

Important International Lines and Boundaries

Boundary Countries
Hindenburg Line  Boundary dividing Germany and Poland
McMahon Line  Frontier between India and China. Drawn by Sir Henry McMahon
Mannerheim Line  Fortification between Russia and Finland border.
Maginot Line  Line of fortification between France and Germany
Durand Line  Boundary between Pakishtan and Afghanistan. Drawn by Sir Mortimer Durand
Radcliffe Line  Boundary between India and Pakistan. Drawn up by Sir Cyril Radcliffe.
Siegfried Line  Line of fortification between Germany and France
Order- Neisse Line  Border between Poland and Germany
17th Parallel  Boundary between North Vietnam and South Vietnam
38th Parallel  Latitude separating North Korea from South Korea
49th Parallel  Boundary between USA and Canada

Former Names of Countries / States/ Cities

Old Name  New Name
Abyssinia Ethiopia
British Honduras Belize
Ceylon  Sri Lanka
Formosa  Taiwan
Gold Coast  Ghana
Kampuchea  Cambodia
Holland  Netherlands
Nippon  Japan
Nyasaland  Malawi
Peking  Beijing
Northern Rhodesia  Zambia
Rangoon  Yangon
Rhodesia  Zimbabwe