Attorney General

Attorney General is the first law officer of the country and the legal advisor to the government. He is appointed by the President of India under Article 76 of the Indian Constitution. He serves office at the pleasure of the President. The first Attorney General of India was M. C. Setalvad. The current (15th) Attorney General is K K Venugopal. The qualification for appointment as an Attorney General is same as eligibility for appointment as a judge of the Supreme Court.

Attorney General

Solicitor General

Solicitor General is the second law officer of the country. It is not a constitutional post but a statutory one. The first Solicitor General of India was C. K. Daphtary and the current Solicitor General is Ranjith Kumar.

Comptroller and Auditor General

Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) is the auditor of the government. He is appointed by the President on recommendation of the Prime Minister under Article 148 of the Constitution. He holds office for a 6 year term or till the age of retirement, whichever is earlier. The first CAG of India was Narahari Rao and the Present CAG is Rajiv Mehrishi.

National Legal Services Authority (NALSA)

National Legal Services Authority (NALSA) is established under the Legal Services Authorities Act 1987 to provide free legal aid to people who cannot afford legal services and to conduct Lok Adalats for speedier justice. The seniormost judge of the Supreme Court, after the Chief Justice of India, becomes the Chairman of NALSA. The first Chairman of NALSAR was Justice SP Bharucha.

Central Vigilance Commission

Central Vigilance Commission was established as a one-member body to address government corruption. It was established on the recommendation of the Santhanam Committee. Currently, the Commission comprises of one Chief Vigilance Commissioners and two other commissioners. N Srinivas Rao was the first Chief Vigilance Commissioner of India. The present Chief Vigilance Commissioner is K V Chowdhary.

Finance Commission

Finance Commission is constituted under Article 280 of the Indian Constitution. The tenure of a Finance Commission is 5 years. The first Finance Commission was constituted in 1951 with K C Neogy as the Chairman. The current Finance Commission is the 14th Finance Commission for the term 2015-2020. The Chairman of the 15th Finance Commission is N K Singh.

Law Commission

Law Commissions are constituted by the Government from time to time to recommend legislative reforms and clarify and consolidate a branch of law which the government feels is necessary.
The first Law Commission of India was chaired by Lord MaCaulay. The first Law Commission of Independent India was established in 1955 with the then Attorney General, M.C Setalvad as the Chairman. The 20th Law Commission submitted its report in 2015. Justice D.K Jain and Justice A.P Shah served as the Chairman of the 20th Law Commission. The 21st Law Commission has been constituted in September 2015 for a term of three years.

Planning Commission

Planning Commission was set up in March, 1950 through a Cabinet Resolution. It was responsible for preparing the Five Year plans in India with the first five year plan being launched in 1951. However, with effect from 1 January 2015, Planning Commission has been replaced by NITI Aayog (National Institution for Transforming India). The institution will serve as a ‘Think Tank’ of the Government. The Prime Minister is the Chairman of NITI Aayog. The Prime Minister is responsible for choosing a Vice-Chairman. As of January 2018, Dr. Rajiv Kumar has been appointed as the Vice-Chairman of NITI Aayog and Amitabh Kant is the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of NITI Aayog.

Food Safety & Standards Authority of India (FSSAI)

FSSAI has been constituted under the Food Safety and Standards Act 2006. As on January 2018, the Chairman of FSSAI is Preeti Sudan. Pawan Kumar Agarwal has been appointed as the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of FSSAI.
Food Safety & Standards Authority of India (FSSAI)

National Green Tribunal

National Green Tribunal is a quasi-judicial body created under the National Green Tribunal Act 2010 to adjudicate on environment cases. The tribunal comprises of both judicial and expert members. The National Green Tribunal has 5 benches across India (4 + 1 principal bench in New Delhi)
The First Chairperson of NGT was Justice Lokeshwar Singh Panta and the present Chairperson is Justice Swatanter Kumar.


Indian armed forces consist of three services – Indian Army, Navy and Air Force. The President is the Supreme Commander of Indian Armed Forces. The armed forces are supported by paramilitary forces like Assam Rifles, Indian Coast Guard, Special Front Force. Indian Armed Forces and Paramilitary forces come under the Ministry of Defense. Assam Rifles is the oldest paramilitary force in India.
Additionally, India also has central armed police forces such as Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF), Border Security Force (BSF), Indo- Tibetan Border Police, Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) and Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB). These fall under the Ministry of Home Affairs.
Defence Research & Development Organization (DRDO) was formed in 1958 with the amalgamation of the Technical Development Establishment (TDE) of the Indian Army and the Directorate of Technical Development & Production (DTDP) with the Defence Science Organization (DSO) to undertake research and development in the field of defence.
DRDO launched the Integrated Missile Development Programme (IGMDP) in 1982 with Dr. A P J Abdul Kalam as the Chairman. Many missiles like Agni, Prithvi, Trishul, Akash, Nag an Astra have been developed under this programme. Some other notable initiatives of India are -
INS Arihant India’s first nuclear powered submarine
INS Vikrant India’s first aircraft carrier
Mareech Advanced Torpedo Defence System – developed by DRDO
BrahMos India’s super-sonic cruise missile developed in joint venture with Russia.

  • December 4 is observed as Navy Day in India
  • January 15 – National Army Day
  • October 8 – National Air Force Day


Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) was set up in 1969 with headquarters in Bangalore. Vikram Sarabhai is popularly known as the father of Indian Space Programme. He played an important role in establishment of ISRO. Satish Dhawan was the Chairman of ISRO after whom the Satish Dhawan Space Centre has been named. It is located in Sriharikota.

Major Space Programmes of India
1975 - Indian launched its first experimental satellite, Aryabhatta.
1978 – India launched Bhaskara –I to collect information on India’s land, water, forest and ocean resources.
2008 - Indian successfully launched Chandrayana -1 into the Moon’s orbit on India’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV). It is an unmanned space mission to carry out the physical and chemical mapping of the moon.


Various kinds of sciences
Science Subject
Acoustics Study of sound waves
Botany Study of plants
Anatomy Study of structure of animal/ human body
Ornithology Study of birds
Entomology Study of insects
Etymology Study of the origin and history of words
Virology Study of viruses
Zoology Study of animal life
Mycology Study of fungi and fungal diseases
Seismology Study of earthquakes
Histology Study of issues
Orology Study of mountains
Cytology Study of structure and functions of cells
Important Scientific Discoveries and Innovations
Invention / Discovery Inventor
Computer Charles Babbage
Aeroplane Wright Brothers
Dynamo Michael Faraday
Gramophone, Electric Lamp Thomas Elva Edison
Printing Press J. Gutenberg
Steam Engine James Watt
Typewriter C. Soles
Television John Logie Baird
Shorthand Issac Pitman
Revolver Samuel Colt

Medical Discoveries / Innovations
Discovery / Invention Inventor
Antibiotic / Penicillin Alexander Fleming
Blood Group Landsteiner
Vaccine for Small Pox Edward Jenner
Vaccine for Cholera, Rabies Vaccine Louis Pasteur
Polio Vaccine Jonas Salk
Blood Circulation William Harvey
Antibiotic / Penicillin

Important Instruments
Important Instruments
Instrument Use
Cryometer Measures extremely low temperatures
Periscope Used in submarine to view objects above sea level
Galvanometer Measures electric current
Sphygmomanometer Measures blood pressure
Pyrometer Measures extremely high temperatures
Barometer Measures atmospheric pressure
Anemometer Measures velocity and direction of wind


S.I Units
Quantity S.I Unit
Frequency Hertz
Electric Current Ampere
Pressure Pascal
Force Newton
Work/Energy Joule
Magnetic Field Intensity  Tesla / Weber
Distance travelled by light in one year Lightyear
Wavelength of light Angstrom
Electric Resistance Ohm

Common Acids
Acid Found in
Acetic Acid Vinegar
Lactic Acid Sour Milk
Citric Acid Citrus fruits like lemon, oranges
Butyric Acid  Rancid Butter
Maleic Acid Apple
Oxalic Acid Tomota
Ascorbic Acid Amla
Formic Acid Red ants
Carbonic Acid  Aerated drinks

Nutrients required by human body
Human body requires proteins, carbohydrates, fats and vitamins to function efficiently. It also requires salts like iodine, potassium etc. in small quantities. Deficiency of necessary nutrient can cause several diseases –
Nutrient Disease caused by Deficiency
Vitamin A Night-Blindness
Vitamin B Beriberi
Vitamin C Scurvy
Vitamin D Rickets
Iodine Goitre
Haemoglobin (Iron) Anaemia