Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
There are various sectors in India that are to be assessed for their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. The total population is over 1 billion which will increase to 1.46 billion by 2035 to cross China. The huge population will result in higher unemployment and deterioration of quality. Literacy, in India is yet another factor to be discussed. According to 1991 census, 64.8% of the population was illiterate. The major downtrend of education is due to child labour which has spread all over India and this should be totally eradicated by way of surveillance and a good educational system implemented properly by the Government.
Pollution is one more threat to the environment and for the country’s prospects. This has been experienced more in urban areas mainly in metropolitan cities. The water pollution by the sewage seepage into the ground water and improper maintenance will lead to various diseases which in turn will affect the next generation. In most of the cities there is no proper sewage disposal. The Government has to take effective steps to control population which, in turn, will minimize the pollution. Poverty questions the entire strength of India’s political view and minimizes the energetic way of approach. The shortfall of rains, enormous floods, unexpected famine, drought, earthquake and the recent tsunami hit the country in a negative way. The proactive approach through effective research and analytical study helps us to determine the effects in advance. Proper allocation of funds is a prerequisite. In developed countries like, U.S., Japan precautionary methods are adopted to overcome this, but it has to be improved a lot in our systems.
Increased population is one of the major reasons for poverty and the Government is unable to allocate funds for basic needs to the society. India has nearly 400 million people living below the poverty line and 90% of active population is in informal economy. The children are forced to work due to their poverty and differential caste system. They work in match industry for daily wages, as servants, mechanics, stone breakers, agricultural workers, etc. To prevent child labour, existing laws which favour the Anti Child Labour Act should be implemented by the Government vigorously. More population results in cheap cost by virtue of the demand supply concept. Most of the foreign countries try to utilize this factor by outsourcing their business in India with a very low capital. According to U.S. India is a “Knowledge pool” with cheap labour. The major advantage is our communication and technical skill which is adaptable to any environment. The cutting edge skill in IT of our professionals helps the outsourcing companies to commensurate with the needs of the consumers in a short span. The major competitors for India are China and Philippines and by the way of an effective communication and expert technical ability, Indians are ahead of the race. The major Metropolitan states are targeting the outsourcing field vigorously by giving various amenities to the outsourcing companies like tax concession, allotting land etc., to start their businesses in its cities without any hurdles. There by most of the MNCs prefer India as their resources to maximize their assets. Infrastructure is another key factor for an outsourcing company to start a business in a particular city. It includes road, rail ports, power and water. The increased input in infrastructure in India is very limited where China’s record is excellent.
India in earlier days gave more importance to the development of industry and less importance to other departments. But the scenario has quite changed now-a-days by allocating a special budget of funds for security. This is because of the frightening increase in terrorism all around the world especially emerging after the 9/11 terror attack in U.S. in the last ten years, budget towards the development of military forces is higher to concentrate more on this security factor to wipe out the problem in the way of cross – border terrorism.
Making India, a developed country in 2020 is not an easy task. India has to keep in check a variety of factors in order to progress rapidly. To quote China as an example is that they demolished an old building to construct a very big port to meet future demands, but India is still waiting for things to happen. The profits gained by the India through various sectors are to be spent for the development and welfare of the country. India’s vision for a brighter path will come true not only by mere words or speech, but extra effort needed at all levels to overcome the pitfalls.
1. Which of the following is/ are a result(s) of increased population in India?
a. Only A
b. Only A and B
c. B Only
d. All A, B and C
2. Why, according to the author, has the Indian Government allotted more funds to strengthen the military forces?
a. To improve security in order to counter increasing terrorism
b. As the security in India over the past ten years was grossly inadequate
c. As the U.S. too has strengthened its military forces after the 9/11 attack
d. As the industry is developed enough and is not in need of any more funds
3. What is the author’s main objective in writing this passage?
a. To exhort the Government to garner support from its neighbouring countries
b. To suggest to the Government to follow China’s example blindly thereby bringing about rapid development
c. To highlight the plight of the poor
d. To bring forth problems associated with the India’s development and to suggest measures to counter them
4. Why, according to the author, is India one of the favourite destinations for investment by outsourcing companies?
A. Shorter response time for clients
B. Better technical skills
C. Availability of cheap labour
a. Only C
b. All A, B and C
c. Only B and C
d. Only A and B
5. Which of the following is/are true in the context of the passage?
A. India leads the way in the amount invested in the development of infrastructure
B. Political system in India is not influenced by poverty
C. Indian population would increase by approximately 50 per cent in the next twenty five years.
a. Only A and B
b. Only B
c. Only C
d. Only B and C
6. Which of the following is/are the facility(ies) available to MNCs investing in India?
A. Easy availability of land
B. Better infrastructure than China.
C. Tax Concessions
a. Only C
b. All A, B and C
c. Only A and B
d. Only A and C
7. Which of the following according to the author, is a result of poverty in India?
a. Lack of robust security system
b. Child labour and the resulting dearth of educated youth
c. Floods, famines and other calamities
d. Rapid increase in population
8. How, according to the author, can the effects of floods, famines, drought, etc. be minimized?
a. By limiting pollution there by reducing the chances of such events taking place
b. By educating the children about the ill effects of such calamities who in turn will help during the time of need
c. By following the U.S. system of providing relief to its citizens
d. By allotting proper funds for research which can predict the outcome of such calamities and thus design relief measures
1. Option- d Self-explanatory
2. Option- a To improve security in order to counter increasing terrorism
3. Option- d To bring forth problems associated with the India’s development and to suggest measures to counter them
4. Option- b Self-explanatory
5. Option- c Self-explanatory
6. Option- d Self-explanatory
7. Option- d Self-explanatory
8. Option- d By allotting proper funds for research which can predict the outcome of such calamities and thus design relief measures