Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words in the passage are printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
Job performance is affected by a number of factors. Motivation alone does not lead to increase in performance. Ability and technology moderates the relationship between motivation and performance. The higher the levels of ability and motivation, the higher the level of performance will be. However, increasing motivation beyond an optimal level tends to produce a dysfunctional result because it is accompanied by an increasing level of anxiety. A high level of anxiety often disrupts performances.
The relationship between satisfaction and performance is not clear. Satisfaction may or may not lead to high performance depending on the perceived availability of valued outcomes and the perceived expectancy that a person’s effort and performance will lead to receiving the valued rewards. If the person expects that his performance will lead to increased rewards which he values the level of his motivational effort will increase; if he anticipates less, his motivational effort will be lower.
The relationship between job dissatisfaction and poor performance seems to be clear than that between satisfactions and performance. Dissatisfaction leads to poor performance by means of apathy, absenteeism, turnover, sabotage, and strike. In addition, high performers are more vulnerable to job dissatisfaction because they tend to expect more from their jobs than low performers.
Job satisfaction is more closely related to the decision to join and remain in an organization than to the motivation to produce. The motivation to produce largely depends on the availability of valued outcomes (valence(E), the perceived instrumentality of performance for receiving incentive rewards, and the perceived expectancy that effort leads to performance. The task of satisfying employees is much easier than the task of motivating them because the former can be achieved by rewarding them while the latter requires such additional constraints as establishing performance-reward contingencies and designing motivating work systems.
1. Choose the word that is SIMILAR in meaning to the word ‘moderate’ as used in the passage.
2. The individual’s decision to remain in the organization depends on
(1) relationship between satisfaction and performance
(2) the level of anxiety induced by the job
(3) his level of motivation
(4) the level of job satisfaction
3. Which of the following tasks is easier according to the passage?
(1) Satisfying employees
(2) Motivating the employees
(3) Increasing the ability level of employees
(4) Reducing the anxiety level of employees
4. Which of the following statement/s is/are true in the context of the passage?
(A) Ability leads to performance.
(B) Job satisfaction certainly leads to higher performance.
(C) High anxiety adversely affects performance.
(1) (A) and (B) only
(2) (B) and (C) only
(3) (A) and (C) only
(4) (A) only
5. Which of the following combination of factors affects job performance?
(1) Job satisfaction and Motivation
(2) Motivation and Ability
(3) Job Satisfaction and Ability
(4) Job Satisfaction, Motivation and Ability
6. High level of anxiety
(1) produces higher motivation
(2) increases the level of ability
(3) strengthens the relationship between motivation and performance
(4) decreases job satisfaction
7. The task of motivating employees is difficult due to
(1) apathy and lack of enthusiasm of employees
(2) difficulty in establishing relationship between satisfaction and performance
(3) difficulty in monitoring ability level of employees
(4) difficulty in designing motivating work system
8. Choose the word that is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning of the word ‘apathy’ as used in the passage.