PRAVAHINI(Weekly Periodical-April 2023)Set 3

PRAVAHINI(Weekly Periodical-April 2023)Set 3

Neelesh Singh 20


  1. NATIONAL AFFAIRS ………………….………………………….
  2. INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS……………………………………..
  3. ECONOMIC AFFAIRS………………………………………………..
  4. AWARDS…….…………………………………………………….…..
  5. Important dates & sports………………………………..
  6. Science & tech……………………………………………………
  7. REPORTS & INDEXES………………………………………………
  8. MISCELLANEOUS…………………………………………………






  • The Supreme Court has recently dismissed petitions challenging the Delhi HC’s judgment that upheld the Agnipath scheme for recruitment to the armed forces.
  • An argument on Doctrine of Promissory Estoppel was floated in the Supreme Court related to petitions of shortlisted candidates in the earlier recruitment process to Army and Air Force which was canceled when Agnipath scheme was notified.
  • What is the Doctrine of Promissory Estoppel?
  • Promissory estoppel is a concept developed in contractual laws. It prevents a “promisor” from backing out of an agreement on the grounds that there is no “consideration.”
  • The doctrine is invoked in court by a plaintiff (the party moving court in a civil action) against the defendant to ensure the execution of a contract or seek compensation for failure to perform the contract.
  • Related Case: In the Chhaganlal Keshavalal Mehta v. Patel Narandas Haribhai (1981) case, the Supreme Court listed out a checklist for when the doctrine can be applied.



  • Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve is located in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, making it one of the few tiger reserves in India that spans across two states.
  • It is also the largest tiger reserve in India, covering a total area of 3,728 km2 (1,439 sq mi). The core area of the reserve is 1,200 km2 (460 sq mi), which is an area dedicated solely to the conservation of tigers and other endangered species.
  • The Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve is not just a habitat for tigers, but also a popular tourist destination. The reservoirs and temples of Srisailam are the major attractions for tourists and pilgrims.
  • The reserve is also home to several waterfalls, including Ethipothala Falls, Pedda Dukudu, Gundam, and Chaleswaram.
  • The Krishna river cuts its basin almost 200 meters deep over a distance of 130 kilometers via the Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve. The reserve is home to a diverse range of flora and fauna, including tigers, leopards, Indian bison, spotted deer, sambar deer, and wild boar.



  • Jallianwala Bagh Massacre Day 2023 marks 104 years since the tragic incident that is seen as a turning point in Indian history.
  • The Jallianwala Bagh massacre was a tragic incident that occurred on 13th April 1919 in Amritsar, India, where British Gurkha soldiers, on the orders of Brigadier-General Dyer, fired upon a large crowd of unarmed protestors who had gathered at Jallianwala Bagh to demonstrate against the Rowlatt Act 1919 peacefully.
  • The event resulted in the death of over 1000 innocent men, women, and children and sparked widespread protests and unrest throughout the country.
  • The incident was a significant turning point in India's struggle for independence from British rule and galvanized the Indian people to unite and fight for their rights and freedom.
  • The massacre led to widespread condemnation of British colonial policies, and it played a pivotal role in shaping the Indian independence movement.
  • The incident also marked a significant turning point in Mahatma Gandhi's life as it led him to launch his first major nonviolent civil disobedience campaign, the Non-Cooperation Movement, which ultimately paved the way for India's independence in 1947.
  • Today, Jallianwala Bagh serves as a powerful reminder of the sacrifices made by countless Indians in the fight for independence, and it continues to inspire people around the world to fight against oppression and injustice.



  • Recently, the Solar Energy Corporation of India Limited (SECI) has been recognized as a Miniratna Category-I Central Public Sector Enterprise (CPSE) by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), Govt. of India.
  • What is Solar Energy Corporation of India Limited?
  • SECI was incorporated in 2011 and serves as the primary implementing agency of the MNRE for Renewable Energy schemes/projects towards fulfilling India's international commitments.
  • Achievement: SECI has already awarded Renewable Energy (RE) project capacities of over 56 GW and is also involved in setting up of projects through its own investments and for other public sector entities as Project Management Consultant (PMC).
  • SECI has also achieved the highest credit rating of AAA by ICRA.



  • Recently, Digital Health Summit 2023 was organized by the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) in Goa.
  • CII is a non-government, not-for-profit, industry-led and industry-managed organization.
  • What are the Major Highlights of Digital Health Summit 2023?
  • It highlighted the importance of digital health innovations and how they can empower exponential medicine, including 3D printing, point-of-care diagnostics, robots, bioinformatics, and genomics. It aims to create a digital public goods framework to promote standards for interoperability, data privacy, and data security.
  • It emphasized the need for "citizen-centric" digital health systems with equitable access to high-quality treatments.


  • It also highlighted that health-tech is the most significant aspect of the Fourth Industrial Revolution and taking pre-emptive steps remains the key.
  • What is Digital Healthcare?
  • Digital healthcare is a system of medical care delivery that uses an array of digital technologies to make quality medical care services accessible, affordable, and sustainable.



  • The National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS) and NGO Ashraya Hastha Trust (AHT) signed an MoU recently to test the feasibility of a model comprehensive rural mental health program named “NAMAN” (NIMHANS-AHT Comprehensive Mental-Health Action Program for Rural Communities) in two taluks before launching it nationwide.
  • NAMAN envisions to deliver promotive, preventive, therapeutic, and rehabilitative care for the entire population of the target taluks utilizing the existing human resources in the community.
  • It will be implemented over 3 years in 4 phases. The first phase includes resource building, which involves staff recruitment and training. The second phase will involve the conducting of the situational analysis to assess the mental health of the respective taluks.
  • The third phase is intervention, which involves therapeutic and rehabilitation services. The final phase is evaluation.



  • The National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) has issued guidelines for the assessment of child suspects in heinous offenses to determine whether a child should be treated as a minor or not in criminal cases which come under the “heinous” offenses category of the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015.
  • What are the Guidelines?
  • Child suspects should be assessed by a team of experts, including a child psychologist or psychiatrist, a medical doctor, and a social worker.
  • The assessment should take into account the child's age, developmental stage, and maturity level, as well as any history of trauma or abuse.
  • The team should also consider the child's cognitive abilities and capacity to understand the charges against them. The child suspects will be provided with legal aid and support from child welfare agencies.
  • The Juvenile Justice Board (JJB) will be responsible for conducting a preliminary assessment of the child suspect. The JJB must complete this assessment within three months from the date the child is first brought before it.



  • The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) has released an amendment to the Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules, 2021, to regulate online real money games.
  • What are Online Real Money Games?
  • Real money in the hopes of winning more money. These games can include casino-style games such as poker, blackjack, and slot machines, as well as sports betting, fantasy sports, and other types of online gaming that involve the exchange of money.
  • In India, these types of games have become increasingly popular, leading to concerns about their regulation and potential negative effects on users, such as addiction and financial losses.
  • What are the New Rules?
  • No Promotion of Betting Platforms: The rules have advised media entities, media platforms and online advertisement intermediaries to refrain from carrying advertisements/promotional content of betting platforms.
  • Self-Regulatory Body: As per the Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Amendment Rules, 2023, real money gaming platforms will have to register with a Self-Regulatory Body (SRB) that will determine whether or not the game is "permissible."






  • The Group of Seven (G7) countries' Climate and Energy Ministers and envoys have committed to ensuring carbon-free electricity production by 2035 and accelerating the phase-out of coal.
  • The agreement was made at Sapporo, Japan, ahead of the G7 summit in Hiroshima in May 2023. India was also invited to the summit as a ‘guest’, in the context of its G20 presidency.
  • What are the Major Highlights of the Agreement?
  • Recognising the current global energy crisis and economic disruptions, the agreement calls for accelerating the clean energy transition to net-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2050.
  • The G7 states cited the urgent need to reduce GHG emissions by around 43% by 2030 and 60% by 2035.
  • The participants agreed to accelerate solar and wind energy investments to produce 1,000 gigawatts of solar power and 150 gigawatts of wind power from off-shore platforms by 2030 in line with IPCC's AR6 Report that repeats the need to ensure that global temperatures do not increase by more than 5°C of pre-industrial levels by the end of the century.
  • They reaffirmed that fossil fuel subsidies are inconsistent with the goals of the Paris Agreement and committed to eliminating inefficient fossil fuel subsidies by 2025.



  • Ghana has approved a new malaria vaccine from Oxford University, making it the first country in the world to do so, and a potential step forward in the fight against the disease.
  • The vaccine, known as R21, has been approved domestically for children aged between 5 months and 36 months, who are at the highest risk of death from malaria.
  • It is unclear when the vaccine may be rolled out in Ghana as other regulatory bodies, including the World Health Organization (WHO), are still assessing its safety and effectiveness.
  • The Oxford vaccine is the second malaria vaccine to be approved for use and the first major vaccine to be approved in an African country ahead of rich nations. The approval is rare as it comes before the publication of final-stage trial data.
  • The Serum Institute of India has a deal with Oxford to produce up to 200 million doses of the vaccine annually. The WHO has said that in the areas where the Mosquirix vaccine has been given, all-cause child mortality has dropped by 10 percent, a sign of its impact.




  • As per the latest Trade and Development Report Update released by the United Nations Trade and Development Conference (UNCTAD), India’s economic growth is expected to slow down from 6.6% in 2022 to 6% in 2023.
  • The report also predicts a decline in global growth in 2023 to 2.1% from the previously projected 2.2% in September 2022.
  • However, this projection is based on the assumption that the adverse impact of higher interest rates on the financial sector is limited to the first quarter’s bank runs and bailouts.
  • According to the report, India’s economic growth rate was 6.6% in 2022, and it lost its top position among G20 countries to Saudi Arabia, which has a higher growth rate of 8.6% due to its oil-rich economy.
  • Although India’s export orders are increasing, its GDP growth rate is expected to slow down to 6.0% in 2023 as the current government spending is declining.
  • In 2022, South Asia witnessed a growth rate of 5.7%. However, despite the growth, the poverty rates in the region have continued to rise. UNCTAD predicts that the region will maintain a fast pace of growth at 5.1% in 2023, primarily due to the expansion of its biggest economy, India.




  • Assam’s Bihu dance has made history by breaking two world records with 11,304 dancers and musicians performing at Sarusajai Stadium in Guwahati.
  • The performers attempted to create world records in two categories - the largest Bihu dance performance and the largest performance by folk musicians.
  • This marks a significant moment for the traditional folk dance of Bihu, which is popular across Assam and especially performed during Bohag Bihu or Rongali Bihu, the spring festival that heralds the Assamese New Year in mid-April.
  • The President of India has extended greetings on the occasion of various Traditional New Year Festivals celebrated across India, including Vaishakhi, Vishu (Kerala and other neighboring areas), Naba Barsha (West Bengal), Puthandu-Pirappu (Tamil Nadu), and Vaisakhadi.
  • These festivals, observed during the spring season, signify the beginning of the new year according to different regional calendars in India. Vaishakhi is celebrated by Hindus and Sikhs and marks the formation of the Khalsa panth of warriors under Guru Gobind Singh.
  • These festivals bring together people from various castes and religions across India and celebrate the rich cultural diversity of the country.



  • The Maharashtra Bhushan award is the highest civilian award presented annually by the state government.
  • It is a prestigious recognition that celebrates outstanding achievements and contributions in various fields.
  • The award has a rich history and has been conferred upon numerous notable individuals who have made significant contributions to society.
  • The Maharashtra Bhushan award was conferred for the first time in the year 1996. Initially, it was conferred in the fields of literature, art, sports, and science, but over the years, the categories have expanded to include social work, journalism, and public administration and health services.


  • This expansion reflects the evolving landscape of contributions and achievements that are worthy of recognition.
  • Notable Recipients and Recent Events
  • In recent years, the Maharashtra Bhushan award has been presented to individuals who have made exceptional contributions to society. Recently, Union Home Minister Amit Shah conferred the award upon Appasaheb Dharmadhikari, a renowned personality known for his philanthropic efforts.





  • Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a life-threatening illness caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi).
  • This disease is mostly present in endemic regions of 21 continental Latin American countries, where it is transmitted through contact with infected blood-sucking triatomine bugs’ feces and/or urine (vector-borne transmission).
  • However, it can also be transmitted through infected donor organ transplants, laboratory mishaps, congenital (mom-to-child) transmission during pregnancy or childbirth, and transfusions of infected donor blood or blood products.
  • World Chagas Disease Day is observed every year on April 14 to raise awareness about Chagas Disease.
  • This date was chosen to commemorate the discovery of the first human case of Chagas disease, which was diagnosed by Brazilian doctor and researcher Carlos Ribeiro Justiniano Chagas on April 14, 1909.
  • The theme for World Chagas Disease Day 2023 was “Time to integrate Chagas disease into primary health care,” reflecting the importance of early detection and treatment of this disease.




  • World Hemophilia Day is observed globally on April 17 to raise awareness about hemophilia, a rare genetic blood disorder that inhibits the clotting of blood.
  • Hemophilic individuals lack two crucial clotting factors, Factor VIII (8) or Factor IX (9), which can lead to significant bleeding during injuries and surgeries.
  • Although minor wounds are usually not a concern, severe hemophilia can cause internal bleeding that can damage organs and even result in death.
  • The first-ever World Hemophilia Day was established in 1989 by the World Federation of Hemophilia (WFH) to raise awareness about hemophilia and other bleeding disorders.
  • April 17 was chosen as the date in memory of Frank Schnabel, who was born on that day in 1942 and dedicated his life to improving the lives of people affected by bleeding disorders.
  • The theme for World Hemophilia Day 2023
  • The theme for World Hemophilia Day 2023 is “Access for All: Prevention of Bleeds as the Global Standard of Care.” The objective of this theme is to urge local policymakers and governments to improve access to care for all individuals with bleeding disorders.


Reports & indexes



  • A recent report by Tibet Press highlights that, according to the Freedom in the World Index for 2023 published by international watchdog Freedom House, Tibet is the country with the least freedom in the world.
  • The report, titled “Freedom in the World 2023 Report,” was released by Freedom House on March 9 and identified Tibet, South Sudan, and Syria as the “least-free countries” in the world.
  • This is the third consecutive year that Tibet has been ranked at the bottom of the list in Freedom House’s surveys conducted in 2021 and 2022.
  • The report stated that residents of Tibet were deprived of basic rights, both Chinese and Tibetan, and that the Chinese government is ruthless in suppressing any signs of dissent among Tibetans.
  • The UN Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights recently published its Third Periodic Review report on March 6, which emphasized that numerous issues related to the human rights of Tibetans require urgent attention from the international community. As the Chinese government continues to pursue its policy of “Chineseizing” Tibet, the world is closely monitoring its actions.






  • SpaceX, the private space exploration company founded by Elon Musk, is set to launch its Starship rocket from its facility in South Texas.
  • The Starship rocket is the most powerful rocket ever constructed, generating nearly 16.5 million pounds of thrust at liftoff. The inaugural launch of the Starship rocket is scheduled to take place on April 17.
  • The Starship rocket, consisting of a Super Heavy booster and a Starship spacecraft, is designed to be fully reusable.
  • The Super Heavy booster houses 33 next-generation Raptor engines, while the Starship spacecraft has six Raptor engines. The upcoming test flight will involve a Super Heavy prototype called Booster 7 and the Ship 24 upper-stage variant.
  • The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has granted SpaceX’s request for an uncrewed flight test of the Starship rocket. The regulatory body has also issued a restriction in the launch area to ensure the safety of air traffic.
  • SpaceX had to wait for more than a year to get FAA approval for an orbital launch attempt. Government personnel will be on the ground to ensure the private space company complies with its license during the test launch.


  • RRI (Raman Research Institute) has inked a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the Indian Navy on Quantum Tech. to develop secure maritime communications.
  • RRI is an autonomous institute of the Department of Science and Technology (DST).
  • Under this agreement, RRI’s Quantum Information and Computing (QuIC) lab will lead the research efforts towards developing Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) techniques that the Indian Navy could leverage in the nation's efforts towards securing free space communications.
  • Note: Quantum Technology is a field of science and engineering that deals with the study and application of quantum mechanics principles. Quantum mechanics is the branch of physics that describes the behavior of matter and energy at the atomic and subatomic level.
  • There are Four domains of Quantum Technology:
  1. Quantum communication
  2. Quantum simulation
  3. Quantum computation
  4. Quantum sensing and metrology



  • Recently, researchers have created a detailed map of the invisible dark matter that makes up 85% of the universe.
  • What do the Findings Suggest?
  • The new findings align with the standard model of cosmology based on Einstein's theory of gravity. The researchers used the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) to map dark matter using light from the early universe, known as the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation.
  • They used the CMB radiation to map dark matter by observing how it interacts with the gravity of massive objects like galaxy clusters and lumps of dark matter.
  • The gravitational field generated by these objects bends and distorts the light that passes through them, which helps in detecting dark matter.
  • What is Dark Matter?
  • Dark matter is a hypothetical form of matter that is believed to exist in the universe but is invisible and does not interact with light.
  • Importance of Dark Matter: Dark matter is essential to explaining the observed structure of the universe. It helps to account for the distribution of matter in galaxies and the cosmic web. Understanding dark matter is important for developing a complete understanding of the universe and its evolution.




  • Tamil Nadu’s famous Cumbum Panneer Thratchai, also known as Cumbum grapes recently earned the Geographical Indication (GI) tag.
  • The Cumbum Valley located at the Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu is known as the ‘Grapes City of South India’ and cultivates the Panneer Thratchai.
  • This variety, also known as Muscat Hamburg, is popular for its quick growth and early maturity, ensuring that the crop is available in the market almost throughout the year.
  • The Panneer grapes were first introduced in Tamil Nadu by a French priest in 1832 and are rich in vitamins, tartaric acid and antioxidants and reduce the risk of some chronic diseases.
  • They are also known for a superior taste apart from the purplish brown-color. A GI is a sign used on products that have a specific geographical origin and possess qualities or a reputation that are due to that origin.
  • The Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 seeks to provide for the registration and better protection of geographical indications relating to goods in India. It is governed and directed by the WTO Agreement on TRIPS.




  • The Ministry of Panchayati Raj is celebrating the National Panchayat Awards Week from 17th to 21st April this year. This week-long celebration is aimed at recognizing the efforts of Panchayati Raj institutions in achieving sustainable development goals and promoting good governance at the grassroots level.
  • The National Panchayati Raj Day is celebrated every year on 24th April to commemorate the adoption of the Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act, 1992 that institutionalized Panchayati Raj in India.
  • Theme and Duration
  • The theme of the National Panchayat Awards Week Celebrations 2023 is “Panchayaton ke Sankalpon ki Sidhi ka Utsav,” which means “Celebration of the Success of Panchayat’s Aspirations.”
  • The week-long celebration will last for five days and will include various events and conferences.