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AUSTRALIA-INDIA WATER SECURITY INITIATIVE (AIWASI)

Diksha Sharma 10 MINUTES

AUSTRALIA-INDIA WATER SECURITY INITIATIVE (AIWASI)

The Union Cabinet has approved a MoU (between India and Australia on Technical Cooperation for Australia –India water Security initiative (AIWASI).

AUSTRALIA-INDIA WATER SECURITY INITIATIVE (AIWASI)

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WHAT IS AIWASI?

AIWASI is a project Under South Asia Water Security Initiative (SAWASI) of Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), Australia. It aims to work towards the Water Sensitive City vision which is based on holistic management of the integrated water cycle. AIWASI will strengthen India’s water governance and undertake investments that provide urban water services, support to disadvantaged communities to access reliable, safe water and sanitation services. The project will undertake and deliver a Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) demonstration project. This AIWASI project is also a ‘living laboratory’ with multiple educational, social and environmental benefits like water literacy of students and the community, creation of green spaces, improved air quality from blue-green infrastructure and rejuvenation of degraded water bodies and aquifers.

 

WHAT IS WATER SECURITY?

The definition of water security proposed by UN-Water – The capacity of a population to safeguard sustainable access to adequate quantities of acceptable quality water for sustaining livelihoods, human well-being, and socio-economic development, for ensuring protection against water-borne pollution and water-related disasters, and for preserving ecosystems in a climate of peace and political stability.

 

STEPS TAKEN FOR WATER CONSERVATION

  • Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act: Aims to improve groundwater harvesting, build water conservation and storage mechanisms and has enabled the government to introduce water conservation as a project under the Act.
  • Jal Kranti Abhiyan: Active efforts to revolutionise villages and cities through block-level water conservation schemes. For example, the Jal Gram Scheme under it aimed at developing two model villages in water-starved areas for water conservation and preservation.
  • National Water Mission: Aims to conserve water, minimise wastage and ensure more equitable distribution both across and within states through integrated water resources development and management.
  • NITI Aayog's Composite Water Management Index: Aims to achieve effective utilization of water.
  • Jal Shakti Ministry and Jal Jeevan Mission: Jal Shakti Ministry was formed to tackle water issues holistically. Jal Jeevan mission aims to provide piped water to all rural households by 2024.
  • Atal Bhujal Yojana: Central sector scheme for sustainable management of groundwater with community participation through the formation of Water User Associations, water budgeting, preparation and implementation of Gram-panchayat-wise water security plans, etc.
  • Jal Shakti Abhiyan: Launched in July 2019 as a campaign for water conservation and water security in the country.
  • National Water Awards: Organised by the Department of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation, Ministry of Jal Shakti. Focus on the good work and efforts made by individuals and organisations across the country, and the government’s vision for the path to Jal Samridh Bharat.

AUSTRALIA-INDIA WATER SECURITY INITIATIVE (AIWASI)

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GLOBAL WATER CRISIS REPORT: UNICEF

According to a new report released by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), one in five children worldwide reside in areas of high or extremely high water vulnerability. The Report was released ahead of World Water Day (22nd March).

About the Report : The new report is part of UNICEF’s ‘Water security for all’ initiative that identifies areas where physical water scarcity risks overlap with poor water service levels. The initiative aims to mobilise resources, partnerships, innovation and global response to identified hot spots. UNICEF identified 37 hot-spot countries where children faced especially distressing circumstances in terms of absolute numbers, where global resources, support and urgent action had to be mobilised. Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Haiti, Kenya, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Sudan, Tanzania and Yemen were especially vulnerable.

AUSTRALIA-INDIA WATER SECURITY INITIATIVE (AIWASI)

FINDINGS OF THE REPORT

Children in more than 80 countries live in areas with high or extremely high water vulnerability. Eastern and Southern Africa has the highest proportion of children living in such areas, with more than half of children – 58% – facing difficulty accessing sufficient water every day. It is followed by West and Central Africa (31%), South Asia (25%), and the Middle East (23%). More than 155 million children in South Asia lived in areas with high or even extremely high water vulnerability.

 

WATER CRISIS IN INDIA

India has 4% of the world’s freshwater which has to cater to 17% of the world’s population. As per NITI Aayog report released in June 2018, India is facing the worst-ever water crisis in history. Approximately 600 million people or roughly around 45% of the population in India is facing high to severe water stress. The report says that nearly 40% of the population will have absolutely no access to drinking water by 2030 and 6% of India’s GDP will be lost by 2050 due to the water crisis.

 

Measures Taken by State Governments:

  • Uttar Pradesh – Jakhni Village (water village), Bundelkhand
  • Punjab – Pani Bachao Paise Kamao
  • Madhya Pradesh – Kapil Dhara Yojana
  • Gujarat – Sujalam Sufalam Yojana
  • Telangana – Mission Kakatiya Program
  • Maharashtra – Jalyukt Shivar Abhiyan
  • Andhra Pradesh – Neeru Chettu Programme
  • Rajasthan – Mukhya Mantri Jal Swalambhan Abhiyan (MJSA)

 

WORLD WATER DAY

  • It is observed annually across the globe on 22nd March, with the purpose of highlighting the importance of water, and raising awareness about the water crisis that the world faces.According to the United Nations (UN) website, the main focus of the day is to support the achievement of sustainable development goals (SDG) 6: water and sanitation for all by 2030.
  • History: The resolution to observe World Water Day was first adopted by the UN General Assembly on 22nd December 1992. After which 22nd March was declared as World Water Day and has been celebrated around the world since 1993.
  • Theme of World Water Day 2021: “Valuing Water” - To highlight the value of water in our daily lives. A new World Water Development Report is released each year on or near World Water Day, to provide decision-makers with tools to formulate and implement sustainable water policies. This report is coordinated by UNESCO’s World Water Development Programme (WWAP) on behalf of UN-Water.

AUSTRALIA-INDIA WATER SECURITY INITIATIVE (AIWASI)

TEST YOURSELF

Q.1 The Union Cabinet has approved a MoU between India and Australia on Technical Cooperation for Australia –India water Security initiative (AIWASI). The AIWASI is a project under __________?

  1. Central Asia Water Security Initiative (CAWASI)
  2. Northern Asia Water Security Initiative (NAWASI)
  3. South Asia Water Security Initiative (SAWASI): ANSWER
  4. None of the above-mentioned

 

Q.2 Out of the given options, which of the following Sustainable Development Goal envisages for 'Water & Sanitation for all by 2030'?

  1. Sustainable Development Goal (SDG-17)
  2. Sustainable Development Goal (SDG-6): ANSWER
  3. Sustainable Development Goal (SDG-3)
  4. None of the above

 

Q.3 United Nations World Water Development Report (WWDR) which is UN-Water's flagship report on water and sanitation issues is published by which of the following UN Agencies?

  1. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO): ANSWER
  2. United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
  3. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
  4. None of the following

 

Q.4 In the context of the Jal Shakti Mantralaya, Consider the given statements & state which of the following is/are incorrect?

  1. The Government of India established the Ministry of Jal Shakti in 2019 to consolidate interrelated functions pertaining to water management.
  2. The Ministry launched Jal Shakti Abhiyan – a campaign for water conservation and water security.
  1. Only I is incorrect
  2. Only II is incorrect
  3. Both I & II are incorrect
  4. None of the following: ANSWER

 

Q.5 Consider the given options & state which of the following water security initiatives is not matched with its associated states correctly?

  1. Andhra Pradesh – Neeru Chettu Programme
  2. Odisha – Kapil Dhara Yojana: ANSWER
  3. Gujarat – Sujalam Sufalam Yojana
  4. Telangana – Mission Kakatiya Program

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