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SM Current Affairs APRIL 2022 Set 01, Current Affairs Notes By Success Mantra Coaching Institute GTB Nagar Delhi

SM Current Affairs APRIL 2022 Set 01

Diksha Sharma 20 MINUTES


It gives us great pleasure to release the monthly edition of the PRAVAHINI - Monthly e-Compendium & Weekly e-Periodicals of Current Affairs. The magazine’s members have shown considerable cooperation as well as devotion. We at successmantra.in work tirelessly to create this magazine and bring it to you with a great sense of gratitude.
The PRAVAHINI April-2022 eBook covers the current events that happened in the month of April. Current Affairs is a crucial component of any competitive exams including CLAT, AILET, DU-LLB, HM, CAT, IAS, PCS, SSC, Banking, MBA and various other competitive examinations.

Current Affairs play the bigger role in many competitive and government exams. It holds the power of making or breaking your chance of success. Therefore, the candidates should cover the Current Affairs thoroughly and smartly.

The PRAVAHINI April-2022 eBook is divided into different sections keeping in mind the need of various exams. The sections covered namely International, National, Economy, Ecology and Environment, Science & Technology, Legal Affairs, Sports, States News Makers and few others.

We would also be pleased to receive any suggestion that could assist us with the upcoming editions.

Success Mantra (GTB Nagar, Delhi)
Website: www.successmantra.in
Mail Id: [email protected]



1. National Affairs

2. International Affairs

3. Economic Affairs

4. Appointments

5. Awards & Honors

6. Important Dates & Sports

7. Reports & Indexes

8. Science & Technology

9. Miscellaneous



 YS Jagan Mohan Reddy, the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, inaugurated 13 new districts in the state via video conference on Monday, April 4 in Tadepalli, Guntur district. As a result, there will be a total of 26 districts in the state.

 The new districts were created using Parliamentary constituencies as a guide. With the addition of 13 new districts, Andhra Pradesh now has a total of 26 districts.

 The following is a list of the new districts and their headquarters:

• Alluri Sitarama Raju District – Paderu
• Annamayya District – Rayachoti
• Anakapalli – Anakapalli
• Bapatla – Bapatla
• Eluru – Eluru
• Kakinada – Kakinada
• Kona Seema – Amalapuram
• Manyam District – Parvathipuram
• Nandyal – Nandyal
• NTR District – Vijayawada
• Palnadu – Narsaraopeta
• Sri Balaji District – Tirupati
• Sri Sathya Sai District – Puttaparthi

 As part of the 26 districts of Andhra Pradesh, there will now be 23 revenue divisions.

 The CM added that people have accepted and liked the decentralised system of government because the initiatives are given straight to their doorstep, and that the same is now being extended to the districts.


 The Indian government has introduced the Indian Antarctic Bill-2022, around 40 years after the country had first signed the Antarctic Treaty.

 This bill has been introduced to monitor and regulate activities at its research stations that are located in Antarctica.

 This bill aims to regulate activities and visits to Antarctica as well as all potential disputes that can arise among those nations that are present on the continent.
 The bill has also prescribed penal provisions for certain violations. Under this Bill, the jurisdiction of Indian courts has been extended to Antarctica and it has been allowed to investigate and trial crimes that are committed on the continent.

 Under this bill, an Indian expedition to Antarctica or conducting certain activities on the continent is prohibited without a permit from the committee that will be set up by the government. Also, the committee can cancel the permits.

 As every country has an allotted quota of fishing in this region, this Bill has provided guidelines for commercial fishing in this region by India. However, strict guidelines have been placed in accordance with the related international law.

 The Bill has enabled the Indian tour operators to conduct tourism in the region under strict regulations.

 This bill provides for the constitution of an inspection team that will have the right to carry out inspections in Antarctica. This bill has provided guidelines for the protection of the Antarctic environment.

 Prohibitions under this bill

 Under this bill, dredging, drilling, collection of mineral resources, and excavation have been prohibited in the region except for scientific research purposes that too with a permit.

 This bill has also prohibited damaging the native plants of the region, operating helicopters and vessels that could disturb the habitat, firearms that can disturb the animals and birds, removing soil from the region, and engaging in any activity that can harm the habitat of the region.


 The Lok Sabha has passed the Weapons of Mass Destruction and their Delivery Systems (Prohibition of Unlawful Activities) Amendment Bill, 2022.

 The Bill has been passed to amend the Weapons of Mass Destruction and their Delivery Systems (Prohibition of Unlawful Activities) Act, 2005.

 In accordance with India’s international commitments, the amendment bill was passed to prohibit the financing of the spread of weapons of mass destruction and their delivery systems.

 The 2005 Act prohibited the transport, manufacturing, and transfer of weapons of mass destruction and their delivery systems.

The reason for amending the act

 The amendment of the act is necessary as in recent times, the various regulations that are in place and are related to weapons of mass destruction and their delivery system’s proliferation by international organizations have increased.

 The Financial Action Task Force also has sanctioned the financing of weapons of mass destruction and their delivery systems proliferation.

 What are Weapons of Mass Destruction?

 A weapon of mass destruction is a radiological, nuclear, biological, chemical, or any other weapon that can cause significant harm as well as kill numerous individuals and also cause great damage to infrastructures, the biosphere, or the natural structures.


 In the presence of Union Minister of Environment, Forest & Climate Change, Shri Bhupender Yadav, the mascotto ‘Prakriti’ was launched today to raise public awareness about small changes that can be made to our lifestyle for a better environment.

 As well as various green initiatives taken by the Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change and the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) to ensure effective Plastic Waste Management (PWM) in the country.

 To combat the problem of plastic pollution, India’s Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi, pledged to eliminate single-use plastics (SUPs) by 2022.

 The Union Minister for Environment, Forest & Climate Change also administered the ‘Swachh Bharat Harit Bharat Green Pledge’ to the crowd, carrying the momentum forward and emphasising the importance of active citizen engagement.

 Plastic has emerged as one of the most important environmental concerns of our day. India produces over 3.5 million tonnes of plastic waste each year, with per capita plastic waste creation nearly doubling in the last five years.

 Our ecosystems are harmed by plastic pollution, which is also linked to air pollution.


 The Central Government has announced the reduction of areas under the Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA) in the Northeast states of the country. The impacted states are Assam, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh, and Manipur.

 In the year 1958, AFSPA was enacted with the aim of bringing the situation under control in all the conflict-hit areas of the country.

 Under the AFSPA law, the armed forces are allowed to use any means that is deemed necessary to maintain public order in the states where AFSPA is applicable.

 Under AFSPA, the Armed Forces can cause deaths, destroy structures that are being used as hideouts, training camps, or launch pads and also arrest anyone without having a warrant.

Changes in AFSPA

 In Assam: In Assam, from 23 districts AFSPA will be removed while in one district it will be applied partially.

 In Manipur: In the state of Manipur, from 15 police stations in 6 districts, the AFSPA jurisdiction will be removed

 In Arunachal Pradesh: In this state, in only 3 districts AFSPA will be applicable along with the jurisdiction of two police stations in another district.

 In Nagaland: From 15 police stations in 7 districts of Nagaland, the jurisdiction of AFSPA will be removed.


 Assam and Meghalaya agreed to settle their five-decade-long border dispute in six of the 12 disputed areas that have provoked recurrent tensions between the two states.

 Union Home Minister Amit Shah hailed the decision as a "historic day for the Northeast," as Assam and Meghalaya settled their five-decade-long border dispute in six of the 12 contested areas that have periodically generated tensions between the two states.

 In the presence of Shah, the chief ministers of Assam and Meghalaya, Himanta Biswa Sarma and Conrad Sangma, respectively, signed the agreement.

 The accord will end a long-running dispute in six of the 12 places along the two countries' 884.9-kilometer border.

 As Per the statements of home minister Amit Shah, the signing of the agreement has resolved 70% of the border dispute between the two countries, and he wants to find a solution for the remaining six points soon.

 Assam shares a 2743-kilometer border with Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, and West Bengal. It has border conflicts with Nagaland, Mizoram, Meghalaya, and Arunachal Pradesh.

 An agreement has been struck for 36 communities in the six areas, totaling 36.79 square kilometers. The two states created three teams to explore the problematic boundary issue in August last year.


 The Lok Sabha has passed the Delhi Municipal Corporation (Amendment) Bill so that three municipal corporations of Delhi (MCD) can be merged into a single entity.

 This bill has been passed by a voice vote and various amendments that were moved by the Opposition members have been rejected.

 The Union Cabinet had approved this bill’s presentation. A “Special officer” will be appointed to discharge the elected wing of councilors’ functions till the new corporation’s first meeting is held.

 This amendment bill will be omitting the section related to local bodies, and directors that govern the MCDs functioning.

 Aim of this bill: The three municipal corporations will be merged into a single, well-equipped, and integrated entity so that a robust mechanism can be implemented for ensuring optimal utilization of resources and strategic planning.




 Russia has been suspended from the UN Human Rights Council (UNHRC) after there were allegations that its soldiers violated human rights in Ukraine.

 The member nations of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) voted to suspend Russia.

 The UNHRC is an inter-governmental body under the United Nations. It is responsible for the protection and promotion of human rights across the world.

 The UNHRC also investigates human rights breaches and addresses various human rights issues.

 On 15th March 2006, this council was established by the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA). The UNHRC replaced the earlier formed United Nations Commission on Human Rights.

 There are 47-member states in the UNHRC and they serve for three years. They cannot be re-elected immediately after serving two consecutive terms. Federico Villegas is the current president of the UNHRC.

 The process of removal of a country

 The UNGA can suspend any Council member that committed human rights violations during its membership term. A two-thirds majority vote is required by the General Assembly to suspend a member.

 Suspension of Russia: The United States first moved the resolution to suspend Russia over its military aggression in Ukraine.

 The resolution to remove Russia was titled ‘Suspension of the rights of membership of the Russian Federation in the Human Rights Council’.

 Under this resolution, grave concerns regarding human rights abuses committed by Russia in Ukraine were highlighted. The campaign to suspend Russia started after photos and videos of civilians killed by the Russian army in Bucha came to the fore.


 The 5th BIMSTEC Summit was held on 30th March 2022 in Sri Lanka in a hybrid mode. Prior to this on 28th and 29th March, preparatory meetings were held at the Foreign Minister and Senior Official levels.

 BIMSTEC Summit 2022’s main outcome was the BIMSTEC Charter’s adoption and signing. This charter formalizes the BIMSTEC grouping into an organization that will have a flag, an emblem, and formally listed principles that are to be adhered to by the member nations.

 The BIMSTEC leaders also oversaw the signing of 3 different BIMSTEC agreements that represent the progress being achieved by the group in the ongoing cooperation activities.

 Also, USD 1 million will be provided by India to the BIMSTEC secretariat for increasing its operational budget.

 The scope of the BIMSTEC scholarship program that is offered by the Nalanda International University is also being expanded.

 The agreements that were signed are:

• A BIMSTEC MoU on mutual cooperation for diplomatic training
• A BIMSTEC convention on mutual legal assistance related to criminal matters
• A MoA on the establishment of the BIMSTEC technology transfer facility.
• Progress was also seen regarding the BIMSTEC connectivity agenda with the ‘Master Plan for Transport Connectivity’, being adopted. This plan lays out a framework of guidance for all the connectivity-related activities that will be implemented in this region in the near future.

 Main topics of discussion: In this summit, discussions were held regarding the challenges that were faced during the COVID-19 pandemic, BIMSTEC’s progress as a regional group, the uncertainties that are being currently faced within the international system, as well as the establishment of basic mechanisms and institutional structures of the group.

 The theme of the summit: “Towards a Resilient Region, Prosperous Economies, Healthy People” is the summit’s theme.

 BIMSTEC member countries: India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Thailand, Myanmar, Bhutan, and Nepal are member countries of the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC).


 The United States military and the military of the Philippines kicked off the military drill Balikatan 2022. The Philippine-led annual exercise will take place across Luzon in the Philippines region near Taiwan, from March 28 to April 8, 2022.

 Around 8,900 Filipino and American troops are participating in the military drill, making it the largest Balikatan military exercise ever.

 According to the military, the drills will focus on “maritime security, amphibious operations, live-fire training, urban operations, aviation operations, counterterrorism, and humanitarian assistance and disaster relief”.

 The Visiting Forces Agreement (VFA) gives US troops a legal basis to be in the Southeast Asian country for bilateral exercises and governs the conduct of American armed force personnel.


 The 9th Edition of the India-Kyrgyzstan Joint Special Forces Exercise was held in March-April, 2022 at Special Forces Training School, Bakloh (HP).

 Special Forces contingents from India and Kyrgyzstan have shared their experience and best practices in terms of tactics, techniques, and procedures for countering present and emerging threats throughout the conflict spectrum.

 During the Exercise, combat shooting, sniping, mountain survival, hostage rescue drills, and unarmed warfare were all extensively performed.

 The collaborative training reinforced the existing link between India and Kyrgyzstan, which has grown over years of mutual respect for strategic autonomy, democratic ideals, and zero tolerance for terrorism.

 What is a military Exercise?

 A military exercise or war game is the employment of military resources in training for military operations, either exploring the effects of warfare or testing strategies without actual combat. This also serves the purpose of ensuring the combat readiness of garrisoned or deploy-able forces prior to deployment from a home base.


 Viktor Orban has again been elected as the Prime Minister of Hungary for the fourth time. He won the 4th term by a huge margin more than what was predicted in the pre-election polls.

 After the win, he addressed a jubilant crowd who were chanting his name. Many people in the gathering wore the orange party colour of Fidesz, the party of Viktor Orban.

 He is the longest-serving head of a government in the European Union. Six oppositions united to challenge him in this election and they were seeking to roll back the illiberal policies of Orban’s.

 The opposition claimed that the vote was unfair as they were all banished from the state media.

 Orban however said that the elections were conducted in a fair manner. Over 200 international observers monitored the Hungary elections along with thousands of volunteers from both electoral camps. 69 percent was the turnout for this year’s election.

 Repeated confrontations with the European Union

 The administration of Orban has had repeated confrontations with the European Union over matters that include the neutering of the country’s press as well as the judiciary. His administration has also taken steps that target the LGBTQ community.

 About Hungary

 Hungary is located in Central Europe and is bordered by Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, and Austria. The capital of the country is Budapest and it is also the country’s largest city.


 Sri Lanka’s president Gotabaya Rajapaksa has declared a state of emergency in the country which gives sweeping powers to the country’s security forces.

 This was declared after hundreds of citizens of the county tried to storm his house seething with anger over the economic crisis Sri Lanka is facing.

 The tough laws that were invoked give powers to the military to detain and arrest any suspect without trial for long periods of time.
 The citizens of the country are protesting and calling for his resignation as the country is in turmoil. The nation is facing severe essential shortages, rice prices, crippling power cuts, etc.

 In the country, a night-time curfew has been imposed following continuous protests against the President of the country.

 Why was the emergency declared?

 The emergency has been declared so that public order in the country can be maintained as well as the protection of services and supplies that are essential to the community.

 The economic condition of the country

 Inflation in the country has hit 18.7 percent. Food prices have soared by 30.1 percent. Diesel shortages have also sparked outrage across the country. Daily 13-hours of a power cut is being imposed as there is no diesel for running the generators.

 The state-run hospitals of the country are also facing shortages of life-saving medicines. The International Monetary Fund has been approached by the government while more loans have been asked for from India and China.


 President Ram Nath Kovind landed in Amsterdam for the final leg of his two-nation journey — his first visit to the Netherlands in 34 years — during which he would hold talks with the Dutch top leadership to name a new yellow tulip variety ‘Maitri‘.

 President Kovind arrived from Turkmenistan, where he met with his Turkmen colleague Serdar Berdimuhamedov and pledged to expand bilateral economic and energy cooperation to improve the multifaceted relationship.

 He is the first Indian President to visit Turkmenistan since its independence.

 President Ram Nath Kovind will meet with King Willem Alexander and Queen Maxima, as well as Prime Minister Mark Rutte, during his visit to the Netherlands from April 4 to 7.

 His visit is significant since, in 2022, India and the Netherlands will commemorate 75 years of diplomatic relations.

 Later, President Kovind paid a visit to Keukenhof, one of the world’s largest flower gardens, named a new yellow tulip variety ‘Maitri‘, and here was met by Dutch Foreign Minister Wopke Hoekstra.
 A Strategic Partnership on Water was started in 2021 during the Virtual Summit between the Prime Ministers of the two countries to increase the level of engagement between the two sides in this crucial sector.

 Agriculture, health, urban development, science, and technology cooperation are all important pillars of the bilateral relationship.

 The Netherlands is also an important economic and commercial partner of India since it is the country’s fourth-largest source of foreign direct investment. It is also home to the continent’s largest Indian diaspora.




 According to the list of Hurun Richest Self-Made Women In The World 2022 released by the Hurun Research Institute.

 According to the list, there are 124 Self-Made Women Billionaires in World and China contributes to two-thirds of the world’s self-made women billionaires with 78 followed by the United States with 25 and the United Kingdom with 5.

 Top 3 on the list:

• Wu Yajun co-founder of Longfor (China has topped the list)
• Fan Hongwei, Chairman/President, Hengli Petrochemical Co Ltd (China)
• Wang Laichun of Luxshare Precision Industry (China).

 Indian Scenario:

 Falguni Nayar, Founder and Chief Executive Officer of Nykaa, is ranked 10th with a wealth of USD 7.6 billion. She is the only Indian among the top 10.

 Radha Vembu, co-founder & product manager of Zoho is the second-richest self-made woman billionaire in India with US$ 3.9 bn & ranked 25th in the global list. Radha Vembu is top in India, and second across the world, in the list of Biggest Risers.

 Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw, executive chairperson and founder of Biocon Limited and Biocon Biologics, is 26th on the list, down two places from last year. She has a wealth of US $3.8 bn.


 Asian Development Bank projected a 7 per cent collective growth for South Asian economies in 2022 with the sub region's largest economy India growing by 7.5 per cent in the current fiscal year before picking up to eight per cent the next year.

 However, uncertainties stemming from the Russian invasion of Ukraine, the continuing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, and tightening by the United States Federal Reserve pose risks to the outlook.

 The Manila-based multilateral funding agency, Asian Development Bank (ADB) has projected the GDP growth rate of the Indian economy, in its flagship Asian Development Outlook (ADO) 2022, as follows:

• 2022-23 (FY23): 7.5 per cent
• 2023-24 (FY24): 8.0 per cent


 The Forbes billionaire’s 2022 list is out, which compiles the list of the world’s richest, who this time was hit by the impact of the Russia-Ukraine conflict, coronavirus pandemic and sluggish markets.

 Elon Musk, the Tesla and SpaceX founder topped Forbes’ list for the first time ever with a net worth of $219 billion. Elon Musk is leading the Forbes billionaires list with a net worth of $219 billion, followed by Amazon chief Jeff Bezos at $171 billion.

 America has the most number of billionaires at 735 with a collective net worth of $4.7 trillion, including Elon Musk, who tops the World’s Billionaires list for the first time. China (including Macau and Hong Kong) remains number two, with 607 billionaires worth a collective $2.3 trillion.

 Forbes uses stock prices and exchange rates from March 11, 2022, to calculate net worths.




 Vice Chief Lieutenant General, Manoj Pande is all set to become Chief of the Army Staff as the incumbent Army Chief General M.M. Naravane, who is being seen as the frontrunner for the Chief of Defence Staff’s post, is due to retire by the end of this month.

 Being senior-most in the office after General Naravane, Lt Gen Pande will take over the reign.

 Lt Gen Pande became the senior-most after a few top officers retired in the last three months. The incumbent Lt Gen Raj Shukla who was commanding Army’s training command (ARTRAC) retired on March 31.

 Meanwhile, present Army Chief, Gen MM Naravane is ahead in the race for the post of Chief of Defence Staff after the post fell vacant in December last year as the then Chief of Defence Staff, General Bipin Rawat passed away in a helicopter crash near Coimbatore.


 The Government of India has appointed IFS Vinay Mohan Kwatra as the new Foreign Secretary of India. He is currently serving as India’s envoy to Nepal, from March 2020.

 He will replace the current foreign secretary, Harsh Vardhan Shringla, who will superannuate on April 30, 2022.

 Kwatra is a 1988-batch Indian Foreign Service (IFS) officer, having more than 32 years of experience in foreign service.

 He has also worked in Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s office (PMO) from 2015 to 2017, as well as India’s ambassador to France from August 2017 to February 2020.




 The President of India, Ram Nath Kovind has presented the 3rd National Water Awards in New Delhi. National Water Awards are given for exemplary work in the field of water resource management.
 The first National Water Award was launched in 2018, by the Jal Shakti Ministry. A total of 57 National Water Awards for 2022 have been conferred to states, organizations and others in 11 different categories.

 In the Best State category: Uttar Pradesh has been awarded first prize, followed by Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu.

 In the Best District category: The ‘Best District’ awards for the north zone was bagged by Muzaffarnagar (Uttar Pradesh) and Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar (Punjab); For the south zone, it was Thiruvananthapuram (Kerala) and Kadapa (Andhra Pradesh);

 For the east zone, East Champaran (Bihar) and Godda (Jharkhand) won the award;

 Indore (Madhya Pradesh) and Vadodara (Gujarat) and Banswara (Rajasthan) won the awards in the west zone. Goalpara (Assam) and Siang (Arunachal Pradesh) won the awards for the northeast zone.


 The 94th Academy Awards returned to the Dolby Theater in Hollywood as the top films from the last year were honoured by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.

 The show was hosted by Regina Hall, Amy Schumer and Wanda Sykes, the first time the award ceremony has had multiple hosts since Anne Hathaway and James Franco co-hosted the 83rd instalment in 2011.

 The 94th Academy Awards are honouring the films released between January 1 and December 31, 2021.

 The nominations were announced on February 8, by actors Tracee Ellis Ross and Leslie Jordan.

 Netflix’s The Power of the Dog leads the race with 12 nominations followed by sci-fi epic Dune, with 10 nods. Indian documentary Writing With Fire is also nominated for Best Documentary (Feature).
 Awards will be presented across 23 categories, which are determined based on voting by members of the Academy.

 This time, there are two new categories- Oscars Fan Favorite Award and Oscars Cheer Moment, which will be decided by fan voting, which was done online between February 14 and March 3, 2022.

 Check out the full list of winners

• Best Actor in a Leading Role: Will Smith, “King Richard”
• Best Actress in a Leading Role: Jessica Chastain (The Eyes of Tammy Faye)
• Best Picture: CODA
• Best International Feature Film: Drive My Car
• Documentary Short Subject: The Queen of Basketball
• Best Directing: Jane Campion (The Power of the Dog)
• Best Actress in a Supporting Role: Ariana DeBose (West Side Story)’
• Best Actor in a Supporting Role: Troy Kotsur (CODA)




 Australia beat England by 71 runs in the finals to claim their seventh Women’s World Cup on April 03, 2022, at Hagley Oval in Christchurch, New Zealand.

 Australia posted a record of 356 on the board. In reply, Nat Sciver waged a lone battle and remained unbeaten on 148 but it was not enough as England was bowled out for 285 in 43.4 overs.

 Alyssa Healy of Australia scored 170 runs in the match, the highest individual score made by any cricketer, male or female, in the World Cup Final. She was also the leading run-scorer in the tournament with 509 runs.

 The Player of the Tournament went to Alyssa Healy. Sophie Ecclestone of England was the leading wicket-taker in the tournament, with 21 dismissals.

 The 2022 ICC Women’s Cricket World Cup was the 12th edition of the Women’s Cricket World Cup. The tournament was held in New Zealand from 4 March to 3 April 2022.




 Utkal Divas or Utakala Dibasha or Odisha Day is celebrated on April 1st every year to remember the formation of the Odisha state after a struggle to be recognised as an independent state.

 The state was originally called Orissa but the Lok Sabha passed the Orissa Bill, and Constitution Bill (113rd amendment), in March 2011 to rename it Odisha.
 The History Behind Odisha Day

 History beckons that the present-day Odisha used to form a major portion of the ancient Kalinga. The region witnessed the epic “Kalinga War” led by King Ashoka who invaded and conquered the region in 260 BC.

 Later, the state was invaded and taken over by the Mughals till the British took over the administrative powers of the region and divided it into small units in 1803.

 The western and northern districts became a part of the state of Bengal while the coastal region formed the basis of Bihar and Odisha (then known as Orissa).

 After decades of struggle under the leadership of Odisha’s eminent leaders, the new province came into existence on the 1st of April 1936. The state saw another facelift, now in terms of its name being changed from Orissa to Odisha.

 More about Odisha:

 The earlier capital city of Odisha was Cuttack whereas the current capital city is Bhubaneswar. In terms of tribal population, Odisha is the 3rd state in the country. Various rulers ruled the state.

 More than 31% of the state has been covered with forests. On 9 November 2010, the Parliament of India renamed Orissa as Odisha. The Oriya language was also retitled as Odia.


 World Autism Awareness Day is observed annually on 2nd April by the member states of the United Nations.

 The day is observed to raise awareness among its citizens about people with Autism Spectrum Disorder throughout the world.
 World Autism Awareness Day is organized by the UN Department of Global Communications and UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, with the support of civil society partners including the Autistic Self Advocacy Network, the Global Autism Project and the Specialisterne Foundation.

 The theme of the day: The theme for ‘World Autism Awareness Day 2022’ is “Inclusive Quality Education for All”. Access to education that was made easy for years, especially for autistic persons was disrupted after 2020 with the spread of the Covid-19 pandemic.

 History of the day: The United Nations General Assembly designated a resolution (A/RES/62/139). The council passed ‘World Autism Awareness Day’ on November 1, 2007, and adopted it on December 18, 2007.

 The purpose was to highlight the need to help improve the quality of life of autistic people. The very first World Autism Day was observed in the year 2008 on April 2. World Autism Day is one of only seven official health-specific UN Days.

 What is Autism?

 Autism, or autism spectrum disorder (ASD), refers to a broad range of conditions characterized by challenges with social skills, repetitive behaviours, speech and nonverbal communication. Autism is a development disorder.

 The disorder is characterized by difficulties with social interaction and communication which may also include restricted and repetitive behaviour.

 The signs of Autism are often noticed by the parents of the child during the first three years. These signs develop gradually.


 National Maritime Day in India is observed on 5 April every year. This year is the 59th edition of the National Maritime Day.

 The National Maritime Day is celebrated every year to illustrate the awareness in supporting intercontinental commerce and the global economy as the most well-organized, safe and sound, environmentally responsive approach of transporting goods from one corner to another corner of the world.

 On this day ‘NMD Award of Excellence’ is usually given during the celebrations and there is a trophy and citation, given to recognize and honour individuals for their lifetime distinguished and exceptional achievements and performances in the Indian Maritime sector at a senior level.
 The theme of the National Maritime Day is “Sustainable Shipping beyond Covid-19’’.

 History of National Maritime Day of India:

 National Maritime Day was first celebrated on April 5, 1964. The saga of Indian shipping first started on April 5, 1919, when the SS Loyalty, the first ship of The Scindia Steam Navigation Company Ltd travelled from Mumbai to the United Kingdom (London).

 On this day an award called “Varuna” is conferred to those who made an outstanding contribution to the Indian maritime sector.


 The United Nations General Assembly has designated 5 April to be observed as an International Day of Conscience every year.

 The resolution was adopted on 31 July 2019 by the UN General Assembly. The year 2022 marks the third edition of the celebrations.

 This day serves to remind people to self-reflect, follow their conscience, and do the right things. This Day is observed every year on the 5th of April and the first International Conscience Day was observed in 2020.

 Importance of Conscience: Conscience refers to a person’s inner self that is abstract, a virtual entity, but it plays an important role in the actions of a person.

 A human being cannot ignore the mystic side of his personality that usually becomes the chief motivator behind every action a person performs.

 Morality, ethics, and virtue are guided by conscience and conscience stops people and nations from exploiting others. When conscience becomes inactive, people become materialistic, cruel, senseless, and scoundrels. Eventually, jungle law starts prevailing in the society which leads to the absolute damnation of society.


 The International Day of Sport for Development and Peace (IDSDP) is observed globally on April 6. To raise awareness of this potential, 6 April was declared as the International Day of Sport for Development and Peace (IDSDP) by the UN General Assembly.

 The adoption of this Day signifies the increasing recognition by the UN of the positive influence that sport can have on the advancement of human rights, and social and economic development.

 Sport has the power to change the world; it is a fundamental right and a powerful tool to strengthen social ties and promote sustainable development and peace, as well as solidarity and respect for all.

 What is the theme of the day:

 The global theme of IDSDP 2022 is, “Securing a Sustainable and Peaceful Future for All: The Contribution of Sport,” which creates an opportunity for the Day’s celebrations to promote the use of sport as a tool to advance human rights and sustainable development.

 Under this theme, UN Headquarters in New York will recognize the role of sport in addressing the climate crisis and will highlight actions to lower greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate against climate change.


 Annually on the 7th of April World Health Day is observed across the globe. This day is celebrated with the aim of discussing health-related issues and also draws attention to specific health issues from across the world.

 On 22nd July 1949, the first World Health Day was celebrated. The date was later changed to 7th April with the aim of increasing student participation.

 61 countries had signed the agreement for the implementation of the World Health Organization on 7th April 1948.

 In 1950, the first World Health Day was observed after it was decided that 7th April will be the designated date to celebrate this day in commemoration of the creation of the World Health Organization. Hence, this day also marks the anniversary of WHO.

 Significance of this day: The aim of celebrating this day is to raise awareness among the public about ongoing health issues across the world. This day is also used as an opportunity to generate and spread awareness about the well-being and overall health of people.

 The theme for this year: “Our Planet, Our Health” is the theme for this year’s World Health Day.

 Through this theme, the World Health Organization is aiming to focus on the actions that are needed to keep the humans as well as the planet healthy.




 The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) publishes the State of World Population (SoWP) report annually. The 2022 version of this report has been released recently.

 The recently released State of World Population Report 2022 has been titled “Seeing the Unseen: The case for action in the neglected crisis of unintended pregnancy.”

 Findings related to unintended pregnancies

 Between the years 2015 to 2019, there was a rise in unintended pregnancies which numbered around 121 million across the globe annually.

 Findings related to lack of contraception

 There was a lack of modern and safe methods of contraception and across the globe, around 257 million women are not using such methods of contraception to avoid pregnancies.

 During the first 12 months of the Covid-19 pandemic, there was a disruption in contraceptive supplies due to which around 1.4 million unintended pregnancies were reported.

 Findings related to rape-related pregnancies

 The report states that there has been a rise in rape-related pregnancies. Among women who have experienced partner violence contraceptive use is 53 percent lower. There is more chance of pregnancies occurring due to rape than consensual sex.

 Findings related to abortions

 A rise in abortion has been noticed with more than 60 percent of pregnancies that are unintended, and around 30 percent of all pregnancies, ending in abortion.

 Across the globe, 45 percent of all abortions performed were unsafe. USD 553 million per year in treatment costs is the cost of unsafe abortion in developing countries.

 About United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)

 In 1967, UNFPA was established. It is a sexual and reproductive health agency of the United Nations. In 1969, the UNFPA became operational and it works as a subsidiary under the UN General Assembly.

 Its earlier name was United Nations Fund for Population Activities and in 1987 it was renamed as United Nations Population Fund but retained the abbreviation ‘UNFPA.’


 Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh, has been ranked as the most noise polluted city globally, according to the recent ‘Annual Frontier Report, 2022’ published by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

 As per the report, the city recorded noise pollution of 119 decibels at its highest (dB) in 2021.

 Uttar Pradesh’s Moradabad came second in the list with noise pollution of 114 decibels. Islamabad, the capital of Pakistan is third, with maximum noise pollution of 105 dB.

 The quietest cities in the world as per the report are Irbrid at 60 dB, Lyon at 69 dB, Madrid at 69 dB, Stockholm at 70 dB, and Belgrade at 70 dB.

 The other four most noise polluted cities in India in the list are Kolkata (89 dB), Asansol (89 dB), Jaipur (84 dB), and Delhi (83 dB).

 A total of 61 cities from around the world have been ranked in the report, out of which 13 cities are from South Asia, while 5 among them are from India.

 Guidelines of WHO:

 The WHO guidelines state that sounds with a frequency of over 70 dB are considered harmful to health. For residential areas, the sound limit of 55-dB is standard, while for traffic and business sectors, this limit is 70 dB.




 SpaceX and NASA are gearing up to launch astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS) as part of the Commercial Crew Program of NASA. This will be the fourth crew rotation mission and will be carrying an international crew consisting of four astronauts on a science expedition to the ISS.

 This mission will be launched on 20th April from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center’s Launch Complex 39A. The Kennedy Space Center is located in Florida.

 The crew that will be sent aboard the ISS will be spending several months conducting various maintenance and science aboard the orbiting space station. The astronauts will be returning to Earth in the fall of 2022.

 The crew will be riding on a new Crew Dragon spacecraft and will be launched on a Falcon 9 booster.

 As a tradition of naming a new capsule by the first riding astronauts, the crew chose the name “Freedom” to celebrate the fundamental human right.

 After docking at the space station, the Crew-4 astronauts will be welcomed by Expedition 67’s seven-member crew. Several days after Crew-4’s arrival the astronauts of the Crew-3 mission will be undocking from the ISS and will splash down off Florida’s coast.


 China has launched a new Earth observation satellite on 7th April 2022. This satellite will become a part of the country’s land-sea radar satellite constellation.

 It will capture images to help China safeguard its maritime interests.

 The satellite has been named Gaofen-3 03. It was from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Centre with the use of a Long March-4C rocket.

 The satellite has been successfully inserted into the planned orbit. This newly launched satellite will be networked with the already orbiting Gaofen-3 and Gaofen-3 02 satellites.

 These 3 satellites will form a land-sea radar satellite constellation and will be capturing stable, reliable, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images.

 About SAR Images

 A lot of SAR images are captured by Earth Observation (EO) satellites every day. SAR images have the capabilities to process images during all-weather operations.

 The images produced have a high spatial resolution. These images boast a 1-meter resolution thus, improving China’s monitoring capabilities.


 Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) successfully flight tested the "Solid Fuel Ducted Ramjet" (SFDR) booster off the coast of Odisha at the Integrated Test Range (ITR), Chandipur.

 All of the mission's goals were met throughout the test. The missile's SFDR-based propulsion can intercept aerial threats at supersonic speeds over extended distances. It has an estimated range of 350 kilometers, which is exceptionally long.

 The missile's SFDR-based propulsion can intercept aerial threats at supersonic speeds over extended distances. Data from various range instruments, including Telemetry, Radar, and Electro-Optical Tracking Systems installed by ITR, has corroborated the system's performance.

 Defense Research and Development Laboratory, Hyderabad, developed the SFDR in partnership with other DRDO institutes such as Research Centre Imarat, Hyderabad, and High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Pune.




 The Minister of State for Culture and External Affairs, Meenakshi Lekhi has launched a website ‘Temple 360’.

 During an event organized by the Ministry of Culture at IGNCA Amphitheatre, Indira Gandhi National Centre of Arts, New Delhi under the aegis of Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav.

 About the Temple 360: Temple 360 is a digital platform where anyone can visit or do darshan of 12 Jyotirlinga and Char Dham from any location, making everyone’s life convenient while also keeping people connected.
 The website also allows a devotee to perform e-Darshan, e-Prashad, e-Aarti and several other services. Temple 360 is a website where one can visit a temple of their choice, anytime and from anywhere from India.

 With the help of this website, one can digitally witness the magnificence of some of the most pious Hindu pilgrimages that exist. The website also allows a devotee to perform e-aarti and several other services.


 The 20th edition of the bilateral naval exercise that is named ‘Varuna’ is being conducted by India and France in the Arabian Sea from 30th March till 3rd April 2022.

 In this exercise, various units of the two navies which include submarines, ships, fighter aircraft, maritime patrol aircraft, and helicopters are participating.

 Why is this exercise conducted?

 This exercise is conducted so that the participating units can sharpen and enhance their operational skills in the maritime sector.

 The participating units also look to improve their interoperability so that they can undertake various maritime security operations. The units also demonstrate their commitment, as an integrated force, to the promotion of the region’s security, peace, and stability.

 History of this exercise

 In 1993, these bilateral naval exercises between the Navies of the two countries were first initiated. In 2001, the name of the exercise was christened ‘Varuna’ and it has become an important part of the bilateral strategic relationship between India and France.

 The objective of the exercise

 The scope of this exercise has grown over the years. These exercises provide the navies of both nations with various opportunities to get the best possible practices from each other.

 This exercise plays the role of the significant driver for interactions at the operational level between the navies of India and France. Also, this exercise has highlighted the shared commitment of both countries to the safety, security, and freedom of the global maritime sector.


 From 26th to 30th March 2022, the maiden edition of the Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS) Maritime Exercise 2022 (IMEX-22) was conducted in the Arabian Sea and at Goa.

 This exercise was conducted with the aim of enhancing the interoperability of the participating nations in the area of Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) operations.

 Out of the 24-member nations of IONS, 15 took part in this exercise.

 Phases of the exercise

 This exercise consisted of a Harbour Phase that was conducted at the Mormugao port in Goa from 26th to 27th March. This was followed by a Sea Phase that was conducted at the Arabian Sea from 28th to 30th March.

 Participants of this exercise: The Navies of India, Australia, France, Bangladesh, Maldives, Indonesia, Mozambique, Mauritius, Qatar, Oman, Sri Lanka, Singapore, UAE, Thailand, and the UK participated in this exercise.

 The IONS HADR guidelines were validated and response mechanisms were developed under this exercise for providing HADR from the sea to the shore. Ways for rendering assistance to ships in distress were also practiced.

 About Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS)

 IONS was established in 2007 and the first symposium was held in 2008. It is a forum for collaboration as well as cooperation among the navies of the Indian Ocean Region’s littoral countries.

 This forum promotes friendly relationships and also looks to improve maritime security.

 Member States: India, Bangladesh, Maldives, Seychelles, Pakistan, Iran, Sri Lanka, Saudi Arabia, Oman, France, UAE, Mauritius, Kenya, South Africa, Mozambique, Eritrea, Tanzania, Australia, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Myanmar, Timor Leste, and Thailand are the member of IONS.


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